canada effect & Momentum Exchange meter
Turbine meters are usually used in waterflood operations and low viscosity fluids. A turbine meter consists of a rotating element (turbine) that increases and decreases with fluctuactions of flow rates. Each time the turbine blade passes a sensor, a pulse is measured by the transmitter/ indicator. The transmitter is calibrated to measure the volumetric flow rate bases on the velocity of the turbine blades.
Advantages of a turbine meter is that the sensor is not in contact with the process and is relatively inexpensive. However, disadvantages is the accuracy is limited and can become plugged if large solids, such as well head packing, come through the line. If a turbine blade becomes distorted or breaks off, the accuracy is directly affected.
Typical turndown for a turbine meter is 10:1. Flow rates can be from the 5 GPM through 500,000 BPD can be achieved based on meter size.
ultrasonic doppler meter
ultrasonic transit-time meter
A vortex flowmeter uses an obstruction, called a shredder bar, placed in the path of the flow which causes an alternating flow from side to side of the obstruction. The alternating flow is proportional to the flow rate being obstructed.