# Density

Written by Jerry Ratzlaff on . Posted in Classical Mechanics

## Density

Density (DENS) more precisely volumetric mass density (mass density), is the ratio of the amount of matter in an object compared to its volume. A small, heavy object, such as a rock or a lump of lead, is denser than a larger object of the same mass, such as a piece of cork or foam.

Density is a scalar quantity having direction, some of these include area, energy, entropy, length, mass, power, pressure, speed, temperature, volume, and work.

Depending on its density determines whether or not oil will sink or float on water.  Density can also be expressed as specific gravity, which is the ratio of the density of the substance as compared to a reference material at a standard set of conditions.

To calculate the weight density see weight.

### Density formula

$$\large{ \rho = \frac{m}{V} }$$

$$\large{ \rho = \frac{1}{\upsilon} }$$

Where:

$$\large{ \rho }$$   (Greek symbol rho) = density

$$\large{ m }$$ = mass

$$\large{ V }$$ = volume

$$\large{ \upsilon }$$   (Greek symbol upsilon) = specific volume

## Density of an Ideal Gas

### Density of an Ideal Gas FORMULA

$$\large{ \rho = \frac {mg} {g_c} }$$

Where:

$$\large{ M }$$ = molar gas

$$\large{ p }$$ = pressure

$$\large{ \rho }$$   (Greek symbol rho) = density of an ideal gas

$$\large{ R }$$ = molar gas constant  ($$\; 8.3144621 J mol^{-1} K^{-1} \;$$)

$$\large{ T_a }$$ = absolute temperature

## Relative Density

Relative density is the density or ratio of any substance to another substance.  It sometimes may be called just gravity or specific gravity

### Relative Density FORMULA

$$\large{ RD = \frac{\rho_s}{\rho_r} }$$

Where:

$$\large{ RD }$$ = relative density

$$\large{ \rho_r }$$   (Greek symbol rho) = reference density

$$\large{ \rho_s }$$   (Greek symbol rho) = substance density

## Steam Density

### Steam Density FORMULA

$$\large{ \rho_s = \frac{P \;*\; MW}{R^*T} }$$

Where:

$$\large{ \rho }$$   (Greek symbol rho) = steam density

$$\large{ MW }$$ = molecular weight of water

$$\large{ P }$$ = pressure

$$\large{ R^* }$$ = universal gas constant

$$\large{ T }$$ = temperature

## Vapor Density of Gas

### Vapor Density of Gas Formula

$$\large{ G_{vd} = \frac {G}{H} }$$

Where:

$$\large{ G_{vd} }$$ = vapor density of gas

$$\large{ G }$$ = density of the gas

$$\large{ H }$$ = density of hydrogen

## WEIGHT DENSITY

### $$\large{ W_{\rho} = \frac {mg} {g_c} }$$

Where:

$$\large{ W_{\rho} }$$ (Greek symbol rho) = weight density

$$\large{ g }$$ = gravity

$$\large{ g_c }$$ = gravity conversion constant

$$\large{ m }$$ = mass

## Density of Materials Table

Materiallbs/cu.ftkg/cu.m
Aluminum, oxide 95 1522
Ammonia gas 0.048 0.77
Ammonia nitrate 46 730
Ammonia sulphate, dry 71 1130
Ammonia sulphate, wet 81 1290
Apples 40 641
Asbestos, shredded 20 320 - 400
Asbestos, rock 100 1600
Ashes, wet 46 730 - 890
Ashes, dry 36 570 - 650
Asphalt, crushed 45 721
Babbit 454 7272
Bagasse 7 120
Bakelite, solid 85 1362
Baping powder 45 721
Barium 236 3780
Bark, wood refuse 15 240
Barley 38 609
Barite, crushed 180  2883
Basalt, broken 122 1954
Bassalt, solid 188 3011
Bauxite, crushed 80 1281
Beans, castor 36 577
Beans, cocoa 37 593
Beans, navy 50 801
Beans, soy 45 721
Beeswax 60 961
Beets 45 721
Bentonite 37 593
Bicarbonate of soda 43 689
Bismuth 611 9787
Borax, fine 53 849
Bran 16 256
Brewers grain 27 432
Brick, common red 120 1922
Brick, fine clay 150 2403
Brick, silica 128 2050
Brick, chrome 175 2803
Brick, magnesia 160 2563
Buckwheat 41 657
Butter 54 865
Calcium carbide 75 1201
Caliche 90 1442
Carbon, solid 134 2146
Carbon, powdered 5 80
Carbon, dioxide 0.124 1.98
Carbon, monoxide 0.078 1.25
Cardboard 43 689
Cement, clinker 81 1290 - 1540
Cement, Portland 94 1506
Cement, mortar 135 2162
Cement, slurry 90 1442
Chalk, solid 156 2499
Chalk, lumpy 90 1442
Chalk, fine 70 1121
Charcoal 13 208
Chloroform 95 1522
Chocolate, powder 40 641
Chromic acid, flake 75 1201
Chromium 428 6856
Chromium ore 135 2162
Cinders, furnace 57 913
Cinders, Coal, ash 40 641
Clay, dry excavated 68 1089
Clay, wet excavated 114 1826
Clay, dry lump 67 1073
Clay, fine 85 1362
Clay, wet lump 100 1602
Clay, compacted 109 1746
Clover seed 48 769
Coal, anthracite, solid 94 1506
Coal, anthracite, broken 69 1105
Coal, bituminous, solid 84 1346
Coal, bituminous, broken 52 833
Cobaltite (cobolt ore) 393 6295
Coconut, meal 32 513
Coffee, fresh beans 35 561
Coffee, roast beans 27 432
Coke 36 - 41 570 - 650
Concrete, asphalt 140 2243
Concrete, gravel 150 2403
Concrete, limestone with Portland 148 2371
Copper, ore 121 - 162 1940 - 2590
Copper sulfate, ground 225 3604
Cork, solid 15 240
Cork, ground 10 160
Dolomite, solid 181 2899
Dolomite, pulverized 46 737
Dolomite, lumpy 95 1522
Earth, loam, dry, excavated 78 1249
Earth, moist, excavated 90 1442
Earth, wet, excavated 100 1602
Earth, dense 125 2002
Earth, soft loose mud 108 1730
Earth, packed 95 1522
Ether 46 737
Feldspar, solid 160 2563
Feldspar, pulverized 77 1233
Fertilizer, acid phosphate 60 961
Flaxseed, shole 45 721
Flint, silica 87 1390
Flour, wheet 37 593
Fluorspar, solid 200 3204
Fluorspar, lumps 100 1602
Fluorspar, pulverized 90 1442
Granite, solid 168 2691
Granite, broken 103 1650
Graphite, flake 40 641
Grain, Maize 47 760
Grain, Barley 37 600
Grain, Milled 47 - 50 760 - 800
Grain, Wheet 49 - 50 780 - 800
Gravel, loose, dry 95 1522
Gravel, with sand, natural 120 1922
Gravel, dry 1/4" to 2" 105 1682
Gravel, wet 1/4" to 2" 125 2002
Gummite, uranium ore 243 3890 - 6400
Gypsum, solid 174 2787
Gypsum, broken 81 1290 - 1600
Gypsum, crushed 100 1602
Gypsum, pulverized 70 1121
Hemalite, iron ore 318 - 325 5095 - 5205
Hemimorphite, zinc ore 212 - 218 3395 - 3490
Hydrochloric acid 40% 75 1201
Ice, solid 57 919
Ice, crushed 37 593
Ilmenite 144 2307
Iridium 1383 22154
Iron ore, crushed 131 - 181 2100 - 2900
Iron oxide pigment 25 400
Iron pyrites 150 2400
Iron sulphite, pickling tank, dry 75 1200
Iron sulphite, pickling tank, wet 81 1290
Lime, quick, lump 53 849
Lime, quick, fine 75 1201
Lime, stone, large 168 2691
Lime, stone, lump 96 1538
Lime, hydrated 30 481
Lime, wet or mortar 96 1540
Limonite, solid 237 3796
Limonite, broken 154 2467
Limestone, solid 163 2611
Limestone, broken 97 1554
Limestone, pulverized 87 1394
Magnesite, solid 188 3011
Magnesite, oxide 121 1940
Magnesite sulphate, crystal 70 1121
Magnetite, solid, iron ore 315 5046
Magnetite, broken 205 3284
Malachite, copper ore 234 - 247 3750 - 3960
Manganese, solid 475 7609
Manganese, oxide 120 1922
Marble, solid 160 2563
Marble, broken 98 1570
Mica, solid 180 2883
Mica, broken 100 1602
Mica, flake 32 520
Mica, powder 62 986
Milk, powdered 28 449
Molybdenum ore 100 1600
Motor, wet 150 2403
Mud, packed 119 1906
Mud, fluid 108 1730
Nickel ore 100 1600
Nickel, rolled 541 8666
Nickel, silver 527 8442
Nitric acid, 91% 94 1506
Nitrogen 0.079 1.26
Oil cake 49 785
Oil, linseed 59 942
Oil, petroleum 55 881
Oxygen 0.089 1.43
Paper, standard 75 1201
Peat, dry 25 400
Peat, moist 50 801
Peat, wet 70 1121
Pecan wood 47 753
Phosphate rock, broken 110 1762
Phosphorus 146 2339
Pitch 72 1153
Plaster 53 849
Platinum ore 162 2600
Porcelain 150 2403
Potash 80 1281
Potassium chloride 125 2002
Quartz, solid 165 2643
Quartz, lump 97 1554
Quartz, sand 75 1201
Rubber, caoutchouc 59 945
Rubber, manufactured 95 1522
Rubber, ground scrap 30 481
Rye 44 705
Salt cake 90 1442
Salt, cource 50 801
Salt, fine 75 1201
Sand, wet 120 1922
Sand, wet filled 130 2082
Sand, dry 100 1602
Sand, loose 90 1442
Sand, rammed 105 1682
Sand, water filled 120 1922
Sand with gravel, dry 103 1650
Sand with gravel, wet 126 2020
Sandstone, solid 145 2323
Sandstone, broken 86 1370 - 1450
Sawdust 13 210
Sewage, sludge 45 721
Shale, solid 167 2675
Shale, broken 99 1586
Slag, solid 132 2114
Slag, broken 110 1762
Slag, crushed, 1/4" 74 1185
Slate, solid 168 2691
Slate, broken 81 - 91 1290 - 1450
Slate, pulvenized 85 1362
Smithsonite, zinc ore 268 4300
Snow, freshly fallen 10 160
Snow, compacted 30 481
Soap,solid 50 801
Soap, flakes 10 160
Soap, powdered 23 368
Soapstone talc 150 2400
Soda ash, heavy 67 1080
Soda ash, light 27 432
Sodium 61 977
Sodium aluminate, ground 72 1153
Sodium nitrate, ground 75 1201
Soy beans, whole 47 753
Startch, powdered 35 561
Stone, crushed 100 1602
Stone, common generic 157 2515
Sugar, brown 45 721
Sugar, powedered 50 801
Sugar, granulated 53 849
Sugar, raw cane 60 961
Sulphur, solid 125 2002
Sulphur, lump 82 1314
Sulphur, pulverized 60 961
Tar 72 1153
Tobacco 20 320
Trap rock, solid 180 2883
Trap rock, broken 109 1746
Turpentine 54 865
Water, pure 62 1000
Water, sea 64 1026
Wheat 48 769
Wheat, cracked 42 673
Wool 82 1314
Zinc oxide 25 400