# Heat Transfer by Convection

Heat transfer by convection, abbreviated as Q_{c}, also called heat convection or convective heat transfer, is one of four types of heat transfer: conduction, convection, mixing and radiation. Convection is the energy transfer of heat by air, water, or any other fluid to and object. It includes energy transferred by random molecular motion as well as energy transferred by the bulk motion of the fluid. There are two types of convecion: natural convection and forced convection. Natural convection is fluid flow caused by changes to the fluid, such as change of density or temperature variations of the fluid. Forced convection is convection that is caused by a a piece of equipment, such as a pump or a fan.

### Heat Transfer by Convection Formula

\(\large{ Q_c = \frac { k \; A \; \Delta T \; t } {d} }\)

\(\large{ Q_c = \frac { k \; A \; \left( T_h \;-\; T_c \right) \; t } {d} }\)

Where:

\(\large{ Q_c }\) = heat transfer by conduction

\(\large{ A }\) = area cross-section

\(\large{ T_c }\) = cooler temperature

\(\large{ T_h }\) = higher temperature

\(\large{ \Delta T }\) = temperature differential

\(\large{ t }\) = time taken

\(\large{ k }\) = thermal conductivity

\(\large{ d }\) = thickness of the material