The valve, abbreviated as V, is a mechanism used to stop or open and regulate flow. The type of valve used depends on the application. In general, there are valves used for on-off (open-closed) applications, and throttling valves which can adjust flow. All valves fall into two basic types: stop valves and check valves.
- Stop Valves - Stop valves are used to shut off or partially shut off the flow of liquids. Stop valves are divided into four basic types of valves: gate, globe, ball and butterfly.
- Check Valves - Check valves are used to allow the flow of fluids in only one direction. There are four basic types: diaphragm check, lift check, swing check, and tilting-disk check.
- Valve Turns
- Multi-turn Valves or Linear Motion Valves: Gate Valve, Globe Valve, Pinch Valve, Diaphragm Valve, Needle Valve
- Quarter Turn Valve or Rotary Valve: Plug Valve, Ball Valve, Butterfly Valve
- Self-activated Valves: Check Valve, Pressure Relief Valve
Types of valves
- Ball Valve
- Full Port Ball Valve, Reduced Port Ball Valve, Standard Port Ball Valve, Three-way Port Ball Valve, Trunnion Ball Valve
- Butterfly Valve
- Flange Style Butterfly Valve, Lug Style Butterfly Valve, Wafer Style Butterfly Valve
- Check Valve
- Control Valve
- Back Pressure Valve, Choke Valve, Flow Control Valve, Level Control Valve, Pressure Control Valve, Temperature Control Valve
- Diaphragm Valve
- Gate Valve
- Flap Gate Valve, Knife Gate Valve, Slide Gate Valve, Wedge Gate Valve
- Globe Valve
- Angle Globe Valve, Cross Globe Valve, Straight Globe Valve
- Needle Valve
- Pig Valve
- Pinch Valve
- Plug Valve
- Conical Plug Valve, Cylindrical Plug Valve, Lift Plug Valve, Multi Port Plug Valve
- Pressure Relief Valve
- Specialty Valve
- Actuator - A device that moves the stem by electric, hydraulic or pneumatic to a open or close position.
- Ball - The closing element of a ball valve.
- Ball check valve - A check valve that is much like a swing check valve but instead of having a gate or guided disk, uses a ball to control flow.
- Ball valve - A quarter turn valve used for changing the direction of a process stream (divert or shut off).
- Body - The main casing container used for the flow of fluids and to hold the moving parts and seals of the valve.
- Body rating (actual) - The interaction between being safe, acceptable flowing fluid pressure and temperature and the body, excluding all internals.
- Body rating (normal) - The theoretical pressure rating of the body excluding all internals.
- Bolted bonnet - A bonnet that is connected to the body with bolts.
- Bonnet - The top part of a valve that is attached to the body that contains guids, packing, and stem.
- Bonnet bolts - Bolts that hold the bonnet to the body.
- Bottom flange - A flange at the bottom of a valve or opposite the bonnet.
- Butterfly valve - A quarter turn valve (90° or less) with a circular disk as its closing element.
- Check valve - These valves are designed to allow the process fluid to flow in only one direction to prevent backflow.
- Choke Valve - Valves used in severe service valves designed for oil and gas applications. They are used for controlling the flow rates or pressure on production, steam or water injection.
- Clapper - The hinged closure of a check valve.
- Close-off rating - The maximum pressure drop at which a valve can take without leaking when completely closed.
- Closing pressure - The pressure at which a valve closes or reseats.
- Control valve - This valve controls the flow capability by changing the flow passage size as directed by a signal from a controler.
- Design pressure - The maximum pressure at which a valve can operate.
- Direct pressure - Pressure applied by the flow against the back of the closure and/or opposite the seat end of the valve.
- Disk - A valve assembly part that comes in contact with the seat to close off the flow.
- Disk stroke - When the valve stem moves from a closed to open position.
- Double block and bleed - When under pressure the valve has the capability to maintain a seal across both the upstream and downstream seat rings and have the body cavity bleed down to atmospheric pressure.
- Drain plug - A plug at the bottom of a valve, when removed it drains and flushes the body cavity.
- Electric actuator - It is mounted on a valve and receive a signal that moves the closing element to the desired position.
- Eccentric ball - Similar to a ball valve except it usually contains a segmented ball or half ball.
- Eccentric plug - Has an vertical rectangular opening in the body of a plug valve where the closure is rotated and seated against.
- Extension - Equipment used to provide operating gear accessibility to a below grade valve.
- Face-to face - The distance from end to end of the valve. These dimensions are goverened by ANSI specifications.
- Facing - The contact surface finish of a flange.
- Flange butterfly valve - A butterfly valve with a flange on each end.
- Floating ball - A closing element of a ball valve designed not to be held rigidly on a rotational axis but floats free between the seat rings. When under fluid pressure the ball will be pushed against the downstream seat.
- Floating ball valve - Used in low pressure or small bore processes.
- Four-way (four-port) - These closure elements come with two seperate passageways in L shapes. Each passageway connects to two different lines.
- Full port (full bore) - A valve port opening that is equal to the pipe size or valve opening.
- Handwheel - A wheel operator used to turn the stem and open or close the closure elements. Handwheels can be found on ball, gate, and globe valves.
- High performance butterfly valve - HPBV is not a butterfly valve but its function and dimensions are equivalent.
- Gasket - A seal between two components, usually bolted.
- Gate valve - One of the most frequently used valve in piping systems and is classified as either "rising-stem" or "nonrising-stem" valves.
- Globe valve - A type of valve used for regulating fluid flow, both on/off and throttling, it is a control valve.
- Lever - A device used for quarter-turn valves.
- Lift check valve - A check valve that is very much like a piston check valve where the flow lifts a disk when the valve is open.
- Lug butterfly valve - Connects directly to the flanges by means of a lug or machine bolt.
- Maximum pressure - The maximum pressire limitations of the fluid that a valve can withstand.
- Maximum temperature - The maximum temperature limitations of the fluid that a valve can withstand.
- Mixing valve - Has two inlet ports and one common outlet port.
- Multiport - These valves can either be three-way or four way valves.
- On-off valve - A type of valve that only has two positions, either open or closed and can not be a throttling valve.
- OS&Y (outside screw and yoke) - A valve design in which the stem threads are above the packing gland or outside the valve body and there is a yoke to support the top or outer end of the stem.
- Pig valve - An alternative to conventional pig launchers with the capable of launching and receiving.
- Plug valve - A quarter turn valve that has a conical or cylindrical plug that is rotated within the valve body to stop flow when needed.
- Poppet valve (mushroom valve) - An oval, round, tapered plug, or disk shaped end with a shaft, used to control the closing and opening for gas and vapor.
- Port - A passageway that allow fluid to flow through the closure element / valve.
- Position indicator - Any external device which helps you get a clear visually view of whether a valve is in the closed and open position.
- Pressure drop - The difference in upstream and downstream pressure.
- Quarter turn - A shut-off valve that turns one-quarter on the center vertical axis to close or open the valve.
- Quick-opening - A two-way valve that creates the maximum flow capacity as soon as the stem raises.
- Reduced port (reduced bore) - A valve port opening that is smaller than the pipe size or valve opening.
- Reduced port ball valve (standard or regular) - A reduced bore valve has a smaller bore diameter in the ball than the internal diameter of the pipe.
- Reverse flow - When the flow moves in the oposite direction of the norman system operation.
- Reverse pressure - The pressure applied against the face of a valve closure.
- Rising stem - A stem that rises as the valve is opened.
- Seat - The inner surface of the valve body which creates a tight shut-off.
- Seat load - The contact force between the seat and the valve disk.
- Seat ring - Creates a tight shut-off surface inside the body for the disk.
- Shut-off pressure - The differential pressure against the closure when closed.
- Shut-off valve - A block valve that only has two positions, either open or closed and can not be a throttling valve. Sometimes used for emergeny shutdown of the system.
- Stem (shaft) - A shaft that is connected to the handwheel or gear operator and then to the closing element of the valve.
- Stem extension - An extension of the valve stem used to provide operating gear accessibility to a below grade valve.
- Stem nut - A threaded nut that surrounds the valve stem threads and causes the stem to move when rotated.
- Stop-check valve - Essentially, two valves built into one. It can act as a globe valve to isolate or control the flow rate. It also acts as a check valve by preventing reverse flow.
- Stop Valve - Used to shut off or partially shut off the flow of liquids.
- Stroke - The distance the valve piston, plug, or stem, moves from a fully closed to fully open position or vice versa.
- Stuffing box - The chamber surrounding the stem where it emerges from a pressurized space used to contain the packing.
- Swing check valve - It is inexpensive and simple to operate and repair. A check valve that has a disk that pivots about a hinge pin.
- Three-way (three-port) - These closure elements come in T or L shaped passageways. The passageway connects to two or three different lines.
- Tilting disc check valve - A check valve where the disc has a pivot point at the center of the disc.
- Torque - The rotational force used to move a shart.
- Trim - A valve's working parts and materials.
- Trunnion ball - You can tell the difference between the floating and trunnion ball valve by the fixed shaft on the bottom of the body and grease injection fitting.
- Trunnion ball valve - Trunnion design is simply the use of upper and lower supports to retain the ball under pressure.
- Two-way (two-port) - These closure elements come in straight through passageways. The passageway connects to one line.
- V port - The ball closure element has a V shape opening turned on its side. This allows the closure to be opened and closed so to control the flow much better.
- Wafer butterfly valve - A valve that is sandwiched between two flanges.
- Wedge - The closure element of a gate valve. A wedge is opened and closed by the stem.
- Yoke - A bracket to support the top or outer end of the stem and stem bearing used in gate and globe valves..
- ASME B16.10 - Face to Face and End to End Dimensions of Valves
- ASME B16.34 - Valves Flanged, Threaded and Welding End
- ISO 15848-1 - Industrial valves -- Measurement, test and qualification procedures for fugitive emissions -- Part 1: Classification system and qualification procedures for type testing of valves
- ISO 15848-2 - Industrial valves -- Measurement, test and qualification procedures for fugitive emissions -- Part 2: Production acceptance test of valves
- MSS SP-6 - Standard Finishes for Contact Faces of Pipe Flanges and Connecting-End Flanges of Valves and Fittings
- MSS SP-25 - Standard Marking Systems for Valves, Fittings, Flanges and Unions
- MSS SP-88 - Diaphragm Type Valves
|Valves||All Valves, ANSI (in)|
|Ball||Ball Valve, ANSI (in)|
|Butterfly||Butterfly Valve, ANSI (in)|
|Check||Check Valve, ANSI (in)|
|Gate||Gate Valve, ANSI (in)|
|Globe||Globe Valve, ANSI (in)|
|Plug||Plug Valve, ANSI (in)|
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Valve Related Articles
- See area classification drawing
- See drawing abbreviations
- See pipe flange
- See flange safety spray shield
- See gasket
- See instrument abbreviations
- See lockout/tagout
- See piping and instrumentation diagram
- See piping and instrumentation diagram/how to
- See piping one-line drawing
- See service classification
- See valve installation guide
Tags: Equations for Valves