Pipe

Pipe is a hollow tube that can carry products such as fluid, gas, granular and more. Pipe is identified by nominal pipe size and the wall thickness identified by schedule number.

abbreviations

  • CPVC - chlorinated polyvinyl chloride
  • DI - ductile iron
  • DIP - ductile iron pipe
  • NPS - nominal pipe size
  • PVC - polyvinyl chloride
  • SCH - schedule number

pipe Types

There are many methods of making carbon steel pipe, but the two basic methods result in seamless pipe or welded pipe. There are several different processes for joining the pipe seams together, such as Electric Resistance Weld (ERW), Electric Fusion Weld (EFW) or furnace butt-weld. Though it should be noted that the most common processes are ERW and EFW.

  • Standard pipe (seamless and welded) is used for air, gas, steam, and water lines for threading or welding and suitable for flanging or bending fall. Carbon Steel Pipe is ordered under the specification ASTM A53.
  • Standard pipe (seamless only) is used for high temperatures and is suitable for flanging or bending. Carbon Steel Pipe is ordered under the specification ASTM A106.
  • Line service pipe (seamless and welded) is used for transporting gas, oil, petroleum, and water. Carbon Steel Pipe is ordered under the specification API Spec 5L.

Carbon Steel pipe can be triple stamped so that it meets the criteria of ASTM A53, ASTM A106, or API 5L. Each of these specifications requires that the pipe be marked with the spec that it is manufactured to. The pipe will also specify the grade (e.g. Grade A, Grade B), which determines the specific metallurgy of the carbon steel pipe.

Even though both of the processes below can vary, the result is the same - "pipe."

Seamless Pipe

Seamless pipe is extruded into a solid steel tube (billet). The billet is heated to the proper temperature to be pierced. It is then cut to a length and pulled as it advances over the piercing tool, which forms a continuous hole. This process happens again to reach the proper size desired. Before going further, the pierced billet is reheated.

In the next operation, the pierced billet is rolled over a plug that reduces the diameter and wall thickness and increases the length of the billet. Small sizes go to the next step. For large sizes, the previous process is repeated. The next step is the same for all sizes - the pipe is advanced over a mandrel, where both the inside and outside of the pipe are brushed and cleaned.

Reheating is needed again to obtain an even temperature. It is passed through a series of rollers to give it the exact size and roundness, then placed on a conveyor belt where it begins to cool and straighten. The final steps are facing and beveling, followed by inspection. If it is rejected during inspection, it may become structural grade pipe or line service pipe. If it passes inspection then goes to loading and shipping.

Welded Pipe

Welded pipe comes in coils from storage to the mill. The coil is flattened and electrically welded together to form a continuous sheet. Once the proper circumference has been reached, the process of forming the sheet to a round and continuous edge begins. Next the high frequency welder heats the edge then pressure squeezes the heated edges together to form the weld. The weld is inspected for any defects that may have occurred.

After the seam has been worked, it is cooled to the temperature required before sizing the pipe. Once the pipe has passed through rollers that give the proper outside diameter and strength it is cut to a specific length. Next, it is hydrostatic tested and put through straightening rollers. The final step is facing and beveling. If it passes inspection then it goes to loading and shipping. If it is rejected during inspection, it may then become structural grade pipe or line service pipe.

Rejected Pipe

At the time of manufacturing, mills will reject pipe that cannot be graded as a prime product because of physical or chemical imperfections. Pipe that passes inspection is sold to distributors and manufacturers. The pipe that did not make the cut is sold with no warranty - you buy as is. Rejected pipe, also known as structural grade pipe or line service pipe, can still be used in some cases if manufactured to ASTM or API standards. The rejected pipe comes in all types, sizes, and materials and can still be used for purposes other than prime pipe: fencing, casing, posts, supports, etc.

Pipe standards

API Standards

  • API 5L - Specification for CRA Clad or Lined Pipe
  • API 15LE - PE Line Pipe
  • API 15LR - Low Pressure Fiberglass Line Pipe

ASME Standards

  • ASME B36.10M - Welded and Seamless Wrought Steel Pipe
  • ASME B36.19M - Stainless Steel Pipe

ASTM Standards

  • ASTM A53 / A53M - Specification for Pipe, Steel, Black and Hot-Dipped, Zinc-Coated, Welded and Seamless
  • ASTM A74 - Standard Specification for Cast Iron Soil Pipe and Fittings
  • ASTM A106 / A106M - Specification for Seamless Carbon Steel Pipe for High-Temperature Service
  • ASTM A716 - Standard Specification for Ductile Iron Culvert Pipe
  • ASTM A733 - Standard Specification for Welded and Seamless Carbon Steel and Austenitic Stainless Steel Pipe Nipples
  • ASTM A746 - Standard Specification for Ductile Iron Gravity Sewer Pipe
  • ASTM A1053 - Standard Specification for Welded Ferritic-Martensitic Stainless Steel Pipe
  • ASTM C361 - Reinforced Concrete Low-Head Pressure Pipe
  • ASTM D1527 - Standard Specification for Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene (ABS) Plastic Pipe, Schedules 40 and 80
  • ASTM D1784 - Specification for Rigid Poly(Vinyl Chloride) (PVC) Compounds and Chlorinated Poly(Vinyl Chloride) (CPVC) Compounds
  • ASTM D1785 - Standard Specification for Poly(Vinyl Chloride) (PVC) Plastic Pipe, Schedules 40, 80, and 120
  • ASTM D2104 - Standard Specification for Polyethylene (PE) Plastic Pipe, Schedule 40
  • ASTM D2241 - Standard Specification for Poly(Vinyl Chloride) (PVC) Pressure-Rated Pipe (SDR Series)
  • ASTM D2513 - Standard Specification for Polyethylene (PE) Gas Pressure Pipe, Tubing, and Fittings
  • ASTM D2683 - Standard Specification for Socket-Type Polyethylene Fittings for Outside Diameter-Controlled Polyethylene Pipe and Tubing
  • ASTM D3261 - Standard Specification for Butt Heat Fusion Polyethylene (PE) Plastic Fittings for Polyethylene (PE) Plastic Pipe and Tubing
  • ASTM D3350 - Standard Specification for Polyethylene Plastics Pipe and Fittings Materials
  • ASTM E213 - Standard Practice for Ultrasonic Testing of Metal Pipe and Tubing
  • ASTM E273 - Standard Practice for Ultrasonic Testing of the Weld Zone of Welded Pipe and Tubing
  • ASTM F423 - PTFE Plastic-Lined Ferrous Metal Pipe and Fittings
  • ASTM F437 - Threaded CPVC Plastic Pipe Fittings, Sch 80
  • ASTM F438 - Socket-Type CPVC Plastic Pipe Fittings, Sch 40
  • ASTM F439 - CPVC Plastic Pipe Fittings, Schedule 80
  • ASTM F714 - Standard Specification for Polyethylene (PE) Plastic Pipe (DR-PR) Based on Outside Diameter
  • ASTM F441 / F441M - Standard Specification for Chlorinated Poly(Vinyl Chloride) (CPVC) Plastic Pipe, Schedules 40 and 80
  • ASTM F512 - Standard Specification for Smooth-Wall Poly(Vinyl Chloride) (PVC) Conduit and Fittings for Underground Installation
  • ASTM F714 - Standard Specification for Polyethylene (PE) Plastic Pipe (DR-PR) Based on Outside Diameter
  • ASTM F2206 - Standard Specification for Fabricated Fittings of Butt-Fused Polyethylene (PE)

AWWA Standards

  • AWWA C115 - Standard for Flanged Ductile Iron Pipe with Ductile-Iron or Gray-Iron Threaded Flanges
  • AWWA C300 - Reinforced Concrete Pressure Pipe, Steel Cylinder Type, for Water and Other Liquids
  • AWWA C301 - Prestressed Concrete Pressure Pipe, Steel Cylinder Type, for Water and Other Liquids
  • AWWA C302 - Reinforced Concrete Pressure Pipe, Noncylinder Type
  • AWWA C900 - Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) Pressure Pipe and Fabricated Fittings, 4 In. Through 12 In. (100 mm Through 300 mm), for Water Transmission and Distribution
  • AWWA C906 - Polyethylene (PE) Pressure Pipe and Fittings 4 In. (100 mm) Through 63 In. (1,600 mm) for Water Distribution and Transmission
  • AWWA C950 - Standard for Fiberglass Pressure Pipe

Pipe Datasheets

Pipe TypeDatasheets
Pipe Pipe & Tubing
Pipe Pipe Layout
Pipe Pipe Spacing
Pipe Pipe Materials Specifications

Pipe Associations

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