Management and Systems Engineering
Management and Systems engineering, abbreviated as SE, is a field of engineering that concentrates on how to design and manage complicated systems over their life cycles.
|Management and Systems Engineering|
Nomenclature & Symbols
Management and Systems Engineering Glossary
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- Advanced product quality planning - A structured method of defining and establishing the steps necessaty to assure that a product satisfies the customer.
- Accured cost - Earmarked for the project and for which payment is due, but has not been made.
- Activity - The smallest unit of work necessary to complete project work package.
- Activity list - Documents all the activities necessary to complete a project.
- Actual cost - The realized cost incured for the work performed on an activity during a specific time period.
- Advanced product quality planning - A structured method of defining and establishing the steps necessaty to assure that a product satisfies the customer.
- Allocation - The assigning of resources for scheduled activities in the most efficient way possible.
- Apprenticeship - A form of on-the-job training for practitioners that will give them a license or journeyman's level of competencies.
- Approved manufacturer list - A set of approved relationships between manufacturer parts and a company's internal parts.
- Approved vendor list - Ensures purchased products arrive on time and meet your quality control.
- Assembly bill of materials - A list of the items and resources that are required to assemble the parent item.
- Asset turnover - A measure of how efficiently assets are used to produce sales.
- Authorization - The dicision that triggers the allocation of funding needed to carry out the project.
- Authorization work - The effort which has been defined, plus that work for which authorization has been given, but for which defined contract costs have not been agreed upon.
Availability - Takes into account all events that stop planned production like breaks, lunches, or pre-arranged time.
- Avoided cost - An estimated saving based onpreventive measures.
- Baseline schedule - A fixed project schedule.
- Best practice - Something that we have learned from experience on a number of similar projects.
- Bill of materials - A list of parts, raw materials, and accessories, descriptions, part name, part number, quantity, reference designation, procurement type, that make up the assembly or entire product.
- Bill of materials level - The place occupied by a part on the ranking of the bill of materials.
- Bottleneck - Any point at which movement is slowed because demand placed on a resource is greater than capacity.
- Brainstorming - The unstructured generation of ideas by a group of people.
- Budget - The funds allocated to the project that represent the estimated planned expenditures.
- Budget at completion - The sum of all budgets established for the work to be performed.
- Budget cost - The cost anticipated at the start of a project.
- Budgeting and cost management - The estimating of costs and the setting of an agreed budget, and the management of actual and forcast costs against that budget.
- Budgeting - Time phased financial requirements.
- Capital cost - The carrying cost in a balance sheet or acquiring an asset and bringing it to the condition where it is capable of performing its intended function over a future series of periods.
- Cash flow - Cash receipts and payments in a specific period.
- Change request - Outlines a problem and proposes an action to address the problem.
- Changeover - The time required to modify a system or workstation, including teardown and setup.
- Child item - An item that appears in the bill of materials of another item.
- Commercial off-the-shelf - Commercially available items that do not require the procuring organization to perform modification to meet requirements.
- Concept of operation - A document describing how a system operates during the life cycle phase to meet stakeholder expectations.
- Configurable bill of materials - Contains all the components that are required for manufacturing the material to the customer's detailed requiremenrs.
- Conflict management - The process of identifting and addressing differences.
- Contingencies - Planned actions for minimizing the damage caused by a problem.
- Contract manufacturer - A third-party manufacturer of parts or products for a company.
- Constraint - A condition or occurance that might limit, restrict, or regulate the project.
- Corrective action/Protective action - Investigates and solves problems, identifies causes, and takes corrective action to solve the problem.
- Corrective action request - Sent to a supplier when an item or process needs a remedy.
- Cost - Expenses, overhead or the price of a product or service.
- Cost baseline - The approved version of work package cost estimates and contingency reserve that can be changed using formal change control procedures.
- Cost benefit analysis - The relationship between the costs of undertaking a task or project, and the benefits likely to arise from the changed situation.
- Cost management plan - A component of a project or program management plan that describes how costs will be planned, structured, and controlled.
- Cost performance index - A measure of the cost efficency of budgeted resources expressed as the ratio of earned value to actual cost.
- Cost of quality - The sum of all costs associated with conformance and nonconformance.
- Critical activity - A critical activity has zero or negative float. This activity has no allowance for work slippage.
- Critical path - The path in a project schedule that has the longest duration.
- Critical path activity - Any activity on the critical path in a project schedule.
- Cycle time - The time it takes one part to be processed at an individual process step.
- Database - An organized collection of data with a means of identification and retrieval.
- Data management - A process to plan for, acquire, access, manage, protect, and use technical data over the entire life cycle of a system.
- Deliverable - Any unique and verifiable product, result, or capability to perform a service that is performed to complete a process, phase, or project.
- Design - A process to develope and document a solution to a problem utilizing technology, tools, and experts.
- Design deliverables - Technical drawings and schematics, presentations, reports, and specifications for engineering.
- Design history file - Contains or references the records necessary to demonstrate that the design was developed in accordance with the approved design plan.
- Device master record - A record of all information about how a product was produce, including drawings, instructions, and any other records.
- Direct costs - Costs specifically attributed to an activity or group of activities without apportionment.
- Direct labor - The time spent by one or more production workers on filling a specific manufacturing order.
- Discounted cash flow - The relating future cash flows and outflows over the life of a project or operation to a common base value.
- Document control - The function of management and controlling product documentation.
- Down day - A day when the facility, entire shop floor, or a specific work place is not in production.
- Duration - The length of time required or planned for the execution of a project activity.
- Earned value - The measure of work performed in terms of the budget authorized for that work.
- End user - The person or persons who will eventually use the product of a project.
- Engineering bill of materials - Specifies parts or assemblies designed by the engineering department.
- Engineering change notice - A form that communicates the details of an approved change to someone who needs to know about the change.
- Engineering change request - A suggestion that can be submitted to management to solve a problem or make improvement to a product.
- Estimating - An approximation of project time and costs targets that is refined throughout the project life cycle.
- Expert judgment - The practice of using expert opinion to guide decision making.
- Fast tracking - A schedule compression technique in which activities or phases normally done in sequence are performed in parallel for at least a portion of their duration.
- Fill order - An order that has had all its requirements met and can be closed.
- Finished goods - An item that is manufactured for sale.
- Fixed duration - A task in whick the time required for completion is fixed.
- Fixed units - A task in which the number of resources used is fixed.
- Fixed work - A task in which the amount of effort required is fixed.
- Float - The amount of time that a schedule activity can be delayed without delaying the early start date of any successor or violating a schedule constraint.
- Flowchart - A diagram that lays out the complete sequence of steps in a process or procedure.
- Forecast - An estimate of how much of an item should be produced over a specific period of time.
- Good manufacturing practice - A system of processes, procedures, and documents that help ensure that the products are consistantly produces and controlled according to quality standards.
- Historical data - Information on archived projects, including documents and reports.
- Hours per shift - The amount of time per shift actually spent working on the assigner task.
- Incurred costs - Sum of actual and committed costs, whether invoiced/paid or not, at a specific time.
- Indirect cost - Costs associated with a project that cannot be directly attributed to an activity or group of activities.
- Indirect labor - The time spent on tasks that are not directly related to filling a specific manurfacturing order.
- Information Systems Steering Committee - A committee that provides management representatives from all the key organizations across the institution.
- Item type - A code to designate the accounting class for the item, such as discontinued, inventory, and miscelaneous charges.
- Just-in-time manufacturing - A production model in which items are created to meet demand, not created in surplus of in advance of need.
- Key performance indicators - Calculations that helps you measure the sucess about the performance of the line, plant, and/or company.
- Kickoff meeting - The first meeting between a project team and stakeholders.
- Kit - A group of finished items that compose a set.
- Kitten - A process where assemblers are given containers of all parts needed for the production of a product.
- Labor time - The number of employee hours required to complete the operation.
- Lag/Lag time - The minimum necessary lapse of time between the finish of on activity and the finish of an overlapping activity or delay incurred between two specified activities.
- Lead/Lead time - The time between a customer's initial purchase and the delivery of the product.
- Lean manufacturer - A practice that aims to reduce waste time.
- Lessons learned - A set of statements captured after completion of a project or a portion of a project.
- Life cycle - The entire process used to build its deliverables.
- Linear scheduling - A graphical scheduling technique used to assign resources when project work consists of repetitive tasks.
- Made to order - An order fulfillment method for made items.
- Made to spec - A term that describes a product that is made ot the specification of an internal design or by a supplier.
- Management - The act of overseeing planning, personnel, and resources to achieve a goal.
- Management developement - All aspects of staff planning, recruitment, developement, training and assessment.
- Management process - The act of planning and executing a project or process to meet a defined set of objectives or goals.
- Manufacturing bill of materials - A list of all sub-assemblies or items essential to produce a shippable finished product.
- Markup - A markup of price spread is the difference between the selling price of a product and the cost incured to manifacture it.
- Mission statement - A brief summary, approximately one or two sentences, that sums up the background, purposes and benefits of the project.
- Mitigation - Actions taken to eliminate or reduce risk by reducing the probability and/or impact of occurrence.
- Multi-level bill of materials - A list of all components directly or indirectly involved in building the parent part, togeather with the required quantity for each item.
- Negotiation - Satisfying needs by reaching agreement or compromise with other parties.
- New product developement - The total process that takes a service or a product from concept to market.
- New product introduction - All the activities within an organization to define, develope and launch a new or improved product.
- Objective - Something towards which work is to be directed.
- Off-the-shelf - An item that is producedfrom a supplier as-is, with no modifications.
- Operative rule - The business rules an organization chooses to enforce as a matter of policy.
- Opportunity gap - The difference between what an asset is capable of producing and what it actually produces.
- Organization - An autonomous unit within an enterprise under the management of a single individual or board.
- Organization modeling - An analysis technique used to describe roles, responsibilities and reporting structures that exist within an organization.
- Organizational process asset - All materials used by groups within an organization to define, implement, tailor and maintain their processes.
- Organizational unit - A recognized association of people in the context of an organization or enterprise.
- Original equipment manufacturer - A company that manufacturers a product that is sold to another company.
- Output - The number of parts produced during a given time.
- Outsourced service - A service that is part of the manufacturing processes that is purchased from the vender.
- Overall equipment effectiveness - Measures the efficiency and effectiveness of a process.
- Overhead - Costs incured that cannot be directly related to the prducts or serviced produced.
- Parent item - An item that contains another item in the bill of materials.
- Part name - A unique name assigned to a part.
- Part number - A unique numerical value assigned to a part.
- Peer review - A validation technique in which a small group of stakeholders evaluates a portion of a work product to find errors to improve its quality.
- Performance - Anything that causes the manufacturing process to run at less than maximum possible speed.
- Performance reporting - Collecting and dissemination information about project performance to help ensure project progress.
- Phase - A distinct stage in a project life cycle.
- Pick-to-ship cycle time - The period from when an order is released to be picked until the time the order has shipped.
- Policy - A set of ideas, course of principles of action adopted by or proposed for a system or organization.
- Preventative maintenance - Maintenance activities performed by machine operators at regularly scheduled intervals to keep equipment in good working order.
- Process - Also called procedure, an operation or an activity.
- Process center - A resource or collection of resources, commonly people or machines, where an operation or set of operations is performed.
- Process control - The monitoring of the production process through software.
- Process management - The act of planning, coordinating, and overseeing processes with a view to improving outputs and reducing costs.
- Process map - A graphical flowchart identifying the operations in a process, steps in each operation and work time for each step.
- Process model - A visual model or representation of the sequencial flow and control logic of a set of related activities or actions.
- Process security - A type of security that allows you to restrict authority for completing a manufacturing process.
- Process time - The time a job spends at an individual station in a production system from the time the station begins working on it, till the time the station finishes.
- Product - Something that is produced.
- Product data management system - System used to hold mechanical CAD files, including parts and assembly models as well as drawing files.
- Product developement process - Begins with market research and idea generation, and ends with a successful product offered to the general public.
- Product scope - The features and functions that characterize a product, service, or result.
- Production lifecycle management - Management of the products records, including bill of materials, specifications, changes and revisions from beginning to end.
- Production planning - The process of devising or estimating the conversion of resources and information to achieve an end.
- Production system - A specific or defined set of operations within a large supply network or value chain that produces technical or physical output to satisfy an external demand.
- Project - The application of resources to a unique set of coordinated activities, with a defines start and finish, undertaken to meet specific objectives with defined costs.
- Project life cycle - All phases or stages between a project's conception and its termination.
- Project life cycle cost - Cumulative cost of a project over its whole life cycle.
- Project management - The application of knowledge, skills, and principles to a program to achieve the program objectives.
- Project management plan - A document that integrates the program's plan and establishes the management controls and overall plan for intergrating and managing the program's individual components.
- Project manager - The stakeholder assigned by the performing organization to manage the work required to achieve the project objectives.
- Project phase - A collection of related project activities, usally culminating in the completion of a major deliverable.
- Project planning - The developement and maintenance of the project plan.
- Project schedule - The planned dates for performing activities and meeting milestones.
- Promise date - The date that the customer has been told to expect to receive the order.
- Prototype - A sample built of a product.
- Pull production - The process in which products are made only when the customer has ordered a product, and not before.
- Push production - The process in which products are made using customer estimates rather than the customer has ordered a product, and not before.
- Quality - The ratio between good count produced and the total units that were started.
- Quality assurance - Ensures you are doing the right thing the right way.
- Quality control - Ensures that the results of what you have done is what is expected.
- Quality planning - Involves identifying expected quality standards and creating mechanisms to ensure these standards are met.
- Quality management system - A framework for product and service developement that optimizes for the continuous improvement of quality.
- Quantitative risk analysis - The mathematical analysis of risk probability and impact.
- Quantity to fill - An amount of a product that was ordered but has not been received.
- Replaced item - An item in a mass uptate to bill of materials that is removed from the bills of materials.
- Return - An item or merchandise returned by a customer to your company.
- Risk - A future event or problem that exists outside of the control of the project that will have an adveres impact on the project if it occures.
- Risk acceptance - Acknowledging a risk and not taking preemptive action against it.
- Risk assessment - An activity that involves identifying possible risks to a project and examining how these risks, if they occure, would affect objectives.
- Risk analysis - The examination of risk areas or events to access the propbale consequences for each event, or combination of ecents.
- Risk avoidance - A risk response strategy whereby the project team acts to eliminate the threat or protect the project from its impact.
- Risk gap - The difference between estimated risk and the tolerable risk.
- Risk identification - The process of identifying and examining risks and their affects on project objectives.
- Risk impact - The harm or consequences for a project of a risk if it occures.
- Risk management - A process to access potential problems, determine which risks are important to deal with, and impliment strategies to reduce consequences.
- Risk mitigation - A risk response strategy whereby the project team acts to decrease the probability of occurance or impact of a threat.
- Risk plan - The process of deciding how to approach and conduct the risk management activities of a project.
- Risk ranking - A process for ranking the severity and likelyhood of a hazard sequence of events to ensure the estimated risk of the sequence of events.
- Risk tolerance - The level of variation in performance measures that an organization is willing to accept.
- Risk sharing - The hand ownership of a positive risk to a third party who is typically specialized and better able to realize the opportunity.
- Run time - The scheduled production time and its running.
- Sales bill of materials - Provides information about a product in the sales stage.
- Sales order - A request for goods or services.
- Scope - Work that must be performed to deliver a product, service, or their related functions.
- Scope change - Any change to the project scope, which includes any adjustment to the cost, quality, or schedule.
- Scope creep - Adding features and functions to the project scope without approval.
- Scope model - A model that defines the boundaries of a business domain or solution.
- Setup time - The number of hours needed to prepare the work area prior to the operation.
- Shipping date - The date when a sales order leaves your warehouse or office.
- Shipping method - The manner in which the items are transported from the supplier to be manufacturer.
- Shrinkage - The loss of materials.
- Single-level bill of materials - A simple list of of parts, not ment for a complex product list.
- SKU - A unique numerical sales stock identifier usually controlled by the business side if the company.
- Stakeholder - A person or group who has intrests that may be affected by an initiative or influence over it.
- Standard operating procedure - A set of clearly written instructions which outline the steps or tasks needed to complete a job.
- Start-to-finish - A logical relationship in which a succesor activity cannot finish until a predecessor activity has started.
- Start-to-start - A logical relationship in which a succesor activity cannot start until a predecessor activity has started.
- Stock - A set of complete transformations or entities.
- Successor activity - A dependent activity that logically comes after another activity in the schedule.
- Sunk cost - Past costs in a project that can never be recovered.
- Supplier - A person or company that supplies goods or services to a manufacturer.
- Supply chain - A sequence of processes involved in the manufacturing, transportation and selling of a product.
- System design - The process by which solutions to users requirements can be defined, selected and described.
- Total cost - The total of all expenses associated with the manufacturing order.
- Training - An imoortant part of the system since it is unlikely that the delivery system has been operated, maintained or supported by the user before.
- Unit cost - The value of resources and time consumed to create one unit of product.
- User - A stakeholder, person, device, or system that directly or indirectly accesses a system.
- Validation - The process of checking a product to ensure that it satisifies its intended use and confronts to its requirements.
- Variance - The difference between two values like estimated and calculated expenses.
- Walkthrough - A type of peer review in which participants present, discuss, and step through a work product to find errors.
- Welding - The fabrication process that fuses like materials togeather by heating them to a suitable temperatures, this can be acomplished by brazing, soldering or welding.
- Workpiece - A piece being worked on.
- Work around - An immediate or temporary response to an issue for which a prior response had not been planned.
- Work flow - The relationship of the activities in a project from start to finish.
- Work in progress - The set of entities that are partially transformed within any given process.
- Work load - The amount of work units assigned to a resource over a period of time.
- Work package - A deliverable at the lowest level of the work breakdown structure, when that deliverable may be assigned to another person.
- Work product - The document, collection of notes or diagrams used by the business analyst during the requirements developement process.