Electric Charge

on . Posted in Electrical Engineering

Electric charge is a fundamental property of matter that arises from the presence or absence of electrons.  It is a property of subatomic particles, such as protons and electrons, that gives rise to electromagnetic forces.  Electric charge is quantized, which means it exists in discrete amounts, and it can be either positive or negative.  Like charges repel each other, while opposite charges attract each other.

The smallest unit of electric charge is carried by an electron, which has a negative charge of -1.6 x 10^-19 coulombs.  Protons, on the other hand, have a positive charge of +1.6 x 10^-19 coulombs, equal in magnitude but opposite in sign to the electron's charge.  Neutrons have no net electric charge and are considered electrically neutral.  When objects gain or lose electrons, they become electrically charged. If an object gains electrons, it becomes negatively charged.  If it loses electrons, it becomes positively charged.  The imbalance of positive and negative charges in an object creates an electric field around it.

Electric charge is the basis for many phenomena in electricity and magnetism.  When charges are in motion, an electric current is generated, which can be harnessed for various applications.  It is also responsible for the attraction or repulsion between charged objects, the formation of electric fields, and the generation and transmission of electrical energy.


Electric Charge formula

\( Q = I \; t \)     (Electric Charge)

\( I = Q \;/\; t \) 

\( t =  Q \;/\; I  \) 

Solve for Q

current, I
time, t

Solve for I

charge, Q
time, t

Solve for t

charge, Q
current, I

Symbol English Metric
\( Q \) = electric charge \(C\) \(A-s\)
\( I \) = electric current \(I\) \(C\;/\;s\)
\( t \) = time \(sec\) \(s\)


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Tags: Electrical