Millman's Theorem
Millman's theorem is used to simplify complex circuits containing multiple voltage sources. Millman's theorem states that in a circuit composed of multiple voltage sources in parallel with their respective resistances, you can find the voltage across a particular branch by treating each voltage source resistance combination as a current source resistance combination, calculating the currents, and then finding the equivalent voltage.

 \( V = [ \;\sum (V_i \;/\; R_i ) \;] \;/\; [ \;\sum ( 1 \;/\; R_i ) \;] \)
 $\(V\)$ is the total voltage across the parallel circuit
 $\(V_i\)$ is the voltage across each voltage source
 $\(R_i\)$ is the resistance associated with each voltage source.
Steps to Apply Norton's Theorem
 Identify Parallel Branches  Determine which parts of the circuit are in parallel.
 Calculate Inverse Resistance  Compute the sum of the reciprocals of the resistances in each branch.
 Compute Equivalent Resistance  Take the reciprocal of the sum obtained in step 2 to find the equivalent resistance \(R_{eq}\).
 Calculate Equivalent Voltage  Compute the weighted sum of the voltages, where the weights are the reciprocals of the respective resistances. Then divide this sum by the sum of the reciprocals of the resistances.
Millman's theorem is widely used in various applications within electrical engineering, particularly when dealing with circuits that have multiple parallel branches. Here are some of the applications:
 Simplification of Complex Networks  Millman's theorem is used to simplify complex electrical networks that consist of multiple voltage sources and resistors arranged in parallel. By reducing the circuit to an equivalent single voltage source and resistor, it becomes easier to analyze and solve.
 Analysis of Parallel DC Circuits  In DC circuits with multiple parallel branches, Millman's theorem helps in finding the overall voltage and resistance, making it easier to understand the behavior of the entire circuit.
 AC Circuit Analysis  Millman's theorem can be extended to AC circuits involving impedances (complex resistances) and phasor voltages. This is useful in analyzing AC power distribution systems and other AC networks with parallel components.
 Power Distribution Systems  In power distribution systems, where multiple generators or power sources are connected in parallel, Millman's theorem helps in determining the equivalent voltage and impedance, which is crucial for system stability and load sharing.
 Communication Systems  In communication systems, especially in RF and microwave engineering, Millman's theorem is used to analyze and design impedance matching networks and other components where multiple signal paths are combined.
 Electronics and Signal Processing  Millman's theorem is applied in the design and analysis of electronic circuits, such as amplifiers and filters, where multiple input signals are combined.