Fourier's law, abbreviated as q, also called Fourier's law of thermal conduction, is when there exists a temperature gradient within an object, heat energy will flow from the high temperature region to the low temperature region. It is a principle in the field of heat transfer. It describes how heat is conducted through a material, specifically in a one dimensional scenario. Fourier's Law states that the rate of heat transfer through a solid material is directly proportional to the temperature gradient (change in temperature with respect to distance) and is inversely proportional to the material's thermal conductivity.
This law tells us that heat flows from regions of higher temperature to regions of lower temperature within a material. The rate of heat transfer is greater if the temperature difference between the two regions is larger and if the material conducts heat well (high thermal conductivity).
Fourier's Law is used in various fields of science and engineering, including thermodynamics, heat transfer analysis, and the design of thermal systems like heat exchangers and insulation materials. It provides a foundational understanding of how heat moves through materials, which is crucial for designing efficient heat exchange and thermal management systems.