## Electrical Engineering

Electrical engineers, abbreviated as EE, design, develop, test, and supervise the manufacturing of electrical equipment.  Electrical & Electronic engineers design things such as power systems, electronics/microelectronics, signal processing, instrumentation & control systems, computers, and computer networks.

### Abbreviations

• ELEC - electric
• ELECDR - electric drive
• EMD - electric motor driven
• EPS - electric power supply
• ELECT - electrical
• ER - electrical resistance
• ELEK - electronic
• ELECTC - electronic control
• EI - electronic interface
• ES - electronic switch
• EVM - electronic voltmeter
• ELMCH - electromechanical
• EE - Electrical Engineer

## Electrical Engineering Subtopics

 Electrical Engineering Cathodic Protection Communications Computer Design Electronics Instrumentation & Controls Power Project

## Electric Wire Materials

• Copper electrical wire - Copper (Cu) is considered the standard in wiring. Most homes and appliances use copper for two reasons. It is easy to mold or bend and it is a good conductor. Copper is rather easy to come by but not as easy as other conductor metals.
• Aluminum electrical wire - Aluminum (Al) is also easy to mold and bend but less of a conductor than copper. If you decide to use aluminum wire that will carry the same amount of electricity as a copper wire, the wire needs to have a larger diameter. Since aluminum is more abundant than copper, it makes it the cheaper of the two.
• Silver electrical wire - Silver (Ag) is the best conductor of electricity for high temperatures. However, it is hard to bend and expensive.
• Alloys in electrical wire - In manufacturing, an alloy may sometimes be used. Aluminum and copper can be used for cost and conductibility.

## Electrical Terms

### A

• Actuator  -  A device used to open, close, or control valves.
• Alternating current (AC)  -  An electric current that reverses its direction over and over.
• Alternator  -  A device which converts mechanical energy into electrical energy used to maintain a charge in a car battery.
• American Wire Gauge  -  A measure of wire thickness.
• Ammeter  -  An instrument for measuring the flow of electrical current in amperes.
• Amp  -  Amp is a unit of current.
• Amphere  -  A unit of measure for the flow of current in a circuit.
• Analog  -  Analog or analogue is a continuous electronic variable signal caring information.
• Analog switch  -  A switching device able to rought analog signals.

### B

• Battery  -  A storage device for energy and then discharge.  Batteries can be rated by their energy capacity.
• Breaker  -  An automatic switching device that disconnect the power to a circut when the current or heat exceeds a certain level for a certain amount of time.
• Broadband  -  A transmission medium with enough bandwith to cary multiple channels, data, video and voice at the same time.

### C

• Cell  -  Cells generate energy through a thermal process, chemical or optical.
• Circuit  -  A closed loop through which electricity can flow.  The flow of current is from positive to negative.
• Conductor  -  A material through which heat passes.
• Contacts  -  Components
• Coulomb's law  -  The magnitude of the electrostatic force between two electric charges.
• Current  -  The rate of flow of electricity in a circuit, measured in amperes.

### D

• Diode  -  A device allowing the current to flow as a one-way switch only and restricting the current from flowing in the opposite direction.  Diodes allow the current to flow when the anode is positive and the cathode is negative.
• Direct current (DC)  -  An electric current that flows in only one direction.

### E

• Electrolyte  -  A compound that produces ions when dissolved in water and having either a positive of negative charge.

### F

• Frequency  -  The number of cycles per sec, measured in Hertz.
• Fuse  -  An safety device that removes electrical current from a circuit when the current is two high.

### G

• Generator  -  A mechanical device that produces electrical energy from mechanical energy.

### H

• Hertz  -  A measure of frequency or cps (cycles per second).
• Horsepower  -  A measure of power or the rate of doing work.

### M

• Magnetic field  -  Magnetic fields never cross, never start or stop, where the field is strongest lines bunch togeather and can be seen clearly seen in the real world.
• Magnetic flux ($$\phi$$ or $$\phi_B$$)  -  The number of magnetic field lines passing through a given closed surface.
• Magnetic switch  -  Depending on the switch configuration for on and off, the switch is activated when the magnetic field is detected.

### N

• Normally closed (NC)  -  The circuit is closed when the switch is not open.
• Normally open (NO)  -  The circuit is open when the switch is not operated.

### O

• Ohm  -  A unit of resistance.
• Ohm's law  -  The relationships between power, voltage, current, and resistance.

### P

• Primary cell  -  A dry cell and not a rechargeable cell.  A chemical reaction between electrodes and electrolites causing a permanent change.
• Parrallel circuit  -  The parts are arranged in branches each going their own way.
• Power  -  The rate of doing work and is measured by the amount of foot pounds of work done in a particular unit of time.

### R

• Rectifier  -  An electrical device that convert alternating current (AC) to direct current (DC).
• Resistance  -  The ability to resist or prevent the flow of current.
• Resistor  -  They resist the flow of electricity.

### S

• Secondary cell  -  A wet cell and is a rechargable cell.  Generates a current through a secondary cell in the opposite direction of the first cell.
• Semiconductor  -  A type of material that has an electronic resistance between the metal and the resistance insulator.
• Series circuit  -  The parts are connected end to end.
• Shunt  -  Also called a shunt resistor, is a conductor joining two points in a circuit used to limit the speed of the current.
• Solenoid  -  A device made of a coil of wire.  When current is introduced a magnetic field is formed around the coil (electrical energy) and the plunger is pulled in (mechanical work).  When the current is removed the plunger is released.
• Switch  -  A device that opens and closes electrical circuit.

### T

• Thermal insulator  -  Does not conduct heat readily and is used for either heat conservation or personnel protection.
• Transformer  -  A device that uses electromagnetism to convert one current to another current.
• Transducer  -  A voltage output device used for convert energy to another form.
• Transmitter (TX)  -  A current output device used for communication electronic signals over a distance.
• Tuner  -  A circuit that can pick signals from a frequency from a group of signals of different frequencies.

### V

• Volt  -  A unit of electrical pressure.
• Voltage  -  The amount of pressure that will cause one ampere of current in one ohm of resistance.
• Voltage drop  -  The electricity between the meter and where it is be used.

### Z

Display #
Title
API RP 500, Section 6
API RP 500, Section 9
Area Classification Drawing
Control Narrative
Resistor
Resistors in Parallel
Resistors in Series
Temperature Coefficient of Resistance
Voltage Divider
Voltage Drop