When you look around, everything you see or may not see in the universe is made up of matter. If it has a mass and takes up space, it is matter. There are three basic states of matter that everybody can recognize, gas, liquid, and solid. There is a fourth which most people do not thinks of, plasma, it the most common state of them all.
Almost all matter is composed of an electric charge. All electric charges are either positive or negative. Like charges repel each other, unlike charges attract each other. Matter that has no overall charge is called neutral.
Gas, abbreviated as \(G\), is able to be compressed to fit a confined space and expanded when released.
Liquids, abbreviated as \(LIQ\), have a specific volume and can hold any shape it is contained within. Depending on its elements, the density and weight will vary. A liquids molecules are close together with no particular pattern and continually move past each other, this allows it to flow and move about. Having little space between the molecules leaves little room to compress.
Plasma is the four phase of matter. It is everywhere in the universe and the most common of all matter. Of all types of matter it is closest to a gas.
A solid has particles that are compressed together in an orderly pattern.
Matter transition phases
|gas to liquid||condensation|
|gas to solid||deposition|
|liquid to solid||freezing|
|gas to plasma||ionization|
|solid to liquid||melting|
|plasma to gas||recombination|
|solid to gas||sublimation|
|liquid to gas||vaporization|
Enthalpy of system
The chart to the right shows the transitional phase change between gas, liquid, an solid. Gas having the highest enthalpy, liquid having intermediate enthalpy, and liquid having the lowest enthalpy.
Phase to phase transition
This diagram shows the arrangement of the physical properties between solids, liquids, and gas.