## Surveying

Surveying, abbreviated SURV, is the process of determining and recording the three-dimensional positions of angles, distances and points. The next step is to analyze the information to create a detailed map or legal document to be used for parcel maps and construction.

### Abbreviations

- SURV - Survey

## Surveying Types

- Asbuilt survey
- Cadastral survey
- Geodetic survey
- LiDAR (Aerial survey)
- Photogrammrtry surveying (Aerial survey)
- Topographical survey

## Surveying Related Articles

- See beam design formulas
- See frame design formulas
- See plate design formulas
- See geometric properties of structural shapes
- See welding stress and strain connections
- See welding symbols

## Nomenclature & Symbols for Engineering, Mathematics, and Science** **

- See A - B - C - D - E - F - G - H - I - J - K - L - M - N - O - P - Q - R - S - T - U - V - W - X - Y - Z

## Surveying Nomenclature & Symbols

- \( BS \) = Back sight
- \( BT \) = Back tangent
- \( BC \) = Beginning of curve
- \( BVC \) = Beginning of vertical curve
- \( BM \) = Benchmark
- \( BRL \) = Building restriction line
- \( BSL \) = Building setback line
- \( CRB \) = Capped rebar
- \( CL \) = Centerline
- \( \Delta \) = Central angle
- \( c \) = Chord
- \( Con \;Mon \;F \) = Concrete momument found
- \( CVC \) = Curve on vertical curve
- \( DSD \) = Decision sight distance
- \( DC \) = Deflection circular curve
- \( D \) = Degree of curve
- \( ELB \) = East boundary line
- \( EC \) = End of curve
- \( EVC \) = End of vertical curve
- \( EIP \) = Existing iron pipe
- \( E \) = External distance
- \( g_2 \) = Finished grade
- \( FS \) = Forward shot
- \( FT \) = Forward tangent
- \( FD \) or \( FND \) = Found
- \( FD \) or \( FND \) = Found corner
- \( GPPM \) = General property parcel map
- \( GIS \) = GIS mapping
- \( g_1 \) = Grade of back tangent
- \( g_2 \) = Grade of forward tangent
- \( g_2 \) = Grade final
- \( g_1 \) = Grade initial
- \( HP \) = High point
- \( g_1 \) = Initial grade
- \( IPPM \) = Individual property parcel map
- \( HI \) = Instrument height
- \( IS \) = Intermediate shot
- \( I \) = Intersecting angle
- \( ISD \) = Intersection sight distance
- \( IP \) = Iron pipe
- \( IPF \) = Iron pipe/pin found
- \( IPS \) = Iron pipe/pin set
- \( IRF \) = Iron rod found
- \( IRS \) = Iron rod set
- \( LM \) = Landmark
- \( L \) or \( LC \) = Length of curve
- \( LS \) = License/Land Surveyoe #
- \( L.O.D. \) = Limit of disturbance
- \( LIS \) = LIS mapping
- \( LC \) = Long cord
- \( LT \) = Long tangent
- \( LP \) = Low point
- \( MAG \) = Magnetic concrete nail
- \( M \) = Middle ordinate
- \( MBS \) = Minimum building setbac
- \( NPP \) = Nail in power pole
- \( NTCFP \) = Nail on top of corner fence post
- \( NTFP \) = Nail on top of fence post
- \( NMS \) = No monument found
- \( NBL \) = North boundary line
- \( NTS \) = Not to scale
- \( PSD \) = Passing sight distance
- \( POB \) = Point of beginning
- \( POC \) = Point of circular curve
- \( PCC \) = Point of compound curvature
- \( PC \) = Point of curve
- \( POE \) = Point of ending
- \( PI \) = Point of intersection
- \( PRC \) = Point of reverse curve
- \( PT \) = Point of tangent
- \( PTC \) = Point of tangent curve
- \( PVC \) = Point of vertical curve
- \( PVI \) = Point of vertical intersection
- \( PVT \) = Point of vertical tangent
- \( POL \) = Point of line
- \( PSDE \) = Private storm drain easement
- \( PL \) = Property line
- \( PDE \) = Public drainage easement
- \( R \) = Radius of a circular curve
- \( RP \) = Radius point
- \( R/C \) = Rebar and cap
- \( R/W \) = Right of way
- \( SCM \) = Set concrete monument
- \( SMN \) = Set MAG nail
- \( ST \) = Short tangent
- \( S \) = Sight distance
- \( SBL \) = South boundary line
- \( SR \) = Steel rod
- \( SRS \) = Steel rebar set
- \( SSD \) = Stopping sight distance
- \( T \) = Tangent distance
- \( E \) = Tangent offset
- \( TP \) = Turning point
- \( E \) = Vertical distance from VPI to curve
- \( VPC \) = Vertical point of curve
- \( VPI \) = Vertical point of intersection
- \( VPT \) = Vertical point of tangent
- \( WBL \) = West boundary line
- \( WC \) = Witness corner

## Surveying Terms

- See A - B - C - D - E - F - G - H - I - J - K - L - M - N - O - P - Q - R - S - T - U - V - W - X - Y - Z

### A

**Accepted survey**- A survey accepted by the official having cadastral survey approval authority.

**Adjoiner**- To owner of land which touches the land of another.

**Adjoining**- To be in contact with, touching or contiguous.

**Angle**- Two rays sharing a common point.

**Angle point**- A point in a survey where the alinement of boundary deflects from a straight line.

**Arc definition**- The degree of the curve (D) is the angle formed by two radii drawn from the center of the circle to the ends of the arc.

**Area cross-section**- A two-dimension plane slice of a three-dimension plane.

**Asbuilt survey**- A survey that is done after the completion of a construction project.

**Azimith**- The direction of a line related to north.

### B

**Backsight**- A sight on a previously established survey point.

**Back tangent**-

**Base line**- The east-west line that divides townships.

**Bearing**- An angle in degrees measured clockwise from north.

**Beginning of curve,**See (BVC, PVC, PC) - The point at which a straight line begins to curve, the point tangency to the curve.

**Beginning of vertical curve,**See (BC, PVC, PC) - The point at which a straight line begins to curve, the point tangency to the curve.

**Benchmark**- A relatively fixed point whose coordinates and elevation datum are used for leveling and construction.

**Blaze**- A mark made upon a tree trunk.

**Boundary line**- A line of demarcation between adjoining parcels of land.

**Boundary monument**- An object placed on or near a boundary line to preserve and identify the location of the boundary line.

**Boundary survey**- A mathematically closed diagram of the complete outside boundary of a site.

**Bounds**- A general description of buildings, property, roads, and etc. used in legal documents.

**Broken boundary**- A series of line segments representing a boundary which is not a straight line.

**Bug**- A magnetic locator to search for an iron pipe.

**Building restriction line**-

**Building setback line**-

### C

**Cadastral survey**- A survey that is carried out to describe boundaries and land ownership.

**Capped rebar**- A rebar 18" long, 1/2" diameter, with a cap having the company name and license number stamped into it.

**Centerline**-

**Central angle**- The angle formed by two radii drawn from the center of the circle (0) to PC and PT.

**Chaining**- The measuring a distance using a chain or tape.

**Chord**- A line segment on the interior of a circle.

**Clay**- Particles ranging in size from 0.002 mm and smaller.

**Closing corner**- A corner established where a survey line intersects a previous fixed boundary at a point between corners.

**Collapse slump**- The fresh concrete collapses completely.

**Closed joint**- A joint that is invisible or barely visible between two adjacent slabs or stones.

**Compass bearing**- Uses magnetic north as a reference point.

**Concrete monument found**- A permanent marker set by a land surveyor to reference controll points or property corners.

**Construction survey**- Surveying measurements made before or while the site is under construction.

**Corner**- The location of intersecting boundary lines.

**Coordinate system**- A grid where the axes are apart 90 degrees.

**Cotton spindle**- A 6" to 8" spindle used where you would typically use an iron pipe or rebar as a momument.

**Curve on vertical curve**-

### D

**Datum**- An abstract coordinate system used to reference a known location.

**Decision sight distance**- The distance for a motorist to decide.

**Declination**- The difference between geographic north (true) and magnetic north.

**Deed**- A document that transfers title to real property.

**Deep well**- A well that draws water from beneath an impermeable stratum.

**Deflection angle**- The angle between a tangent and the ends of the chords from the PC.

**Deflection circular curve**- The deflection angle for a full circular angle measures from tangent at PC or PT.

**Degree of curve**- The flatness or shapeness of the curve.

### E

**Easement**- The legal right to use another persons personal property.

**East boundry line**-

**EDM**- Electromagnetic Distance Measurement device.

**Egress**- The right to go on the land of another.

**Elevation survey**- Used to determine the elevation of a structure and it's relationship to the floorplan.

**End of curve,**See (EVC, PVT, PT) - The point at which a curved line ends and the point tangency to the curve begins.

**End of vertical curve,**See (EC, PVT, PT) - The point at which a curved line ends and the point tangency to the curve begins.

**Existing iron pipe**-

**External distance**- The distance from the PI to the midpoint of the curve.

### F

**Final grade**-

**First station**- Point of beginning (POB)

**Forward shot**-

**Forward tangent**-

**Found**-

**Found corner**- An existing corner on a public land survey found by a field survey.

**Furlong**- A distance of 220 yards or 40 poles.

### G

**General property parcel map**-

**Geodetic survey**- A percise survey that takes in long distances showing shape of the world.

**GIS Mapping**, See (LIS) - Geographic Information System is used to locate items like utilities.

**Grade of back tangent**-

**Grade of forward tangent**-

**Grade final**-

**Grade initial**-

**Gradient**- The rate of rise and fall.

**Grid bearing**- The northwards direction along the grid lines of a map used as a reference point.

**Grid north**- The direction of the north-south grid lines on a state plane coordinate system.

**Gunter's Chain**- A distance of 66 feet or 4 poles.

### H

**Half section**- Containing more or less 360 acres.

-**High point (HP)**

### I

**Ingress**- The right to enter a tract of land.

-**Initial grade**

**Individual property parcel map**-

**Instrument height**-

**Intermediate shot**-

**Intersecting angle**- The deflection angle at the PI.

**Intersection sight distance**- The distance a motorist should be able to see other traffic in the intersection in order to enter safetly.

**Iron pipe**- A pipe 18" long, 3/4" outside diameter, with a plastic cap set inside having the company name and license number stamped into it.

**Iron pipe/pin found**-

**Iron pipe/pin set**-

**Iron rod found**-

**Iron rod set**-

### J

### K

### L

**Landmark**- A marker made on a permanent feature of the land like rocks, trees, etc.

**Land Survey**- The act of surveying to establish the correct property description or establish land boundaries.

**Length of curve (horizontal)**- The distance from PC to PT.

**Leveling**- Using a graduated rod to establish difference in heights of the terrain.

**Licensed/Land Surveyor #**-

**LiDAR (Aerial survey)**- A survey using remote sensors of light reflected by lasers to measure distances.

**Limit of disturbance**-

**LIS Mapping**, See (GIS) - Land Information System is used to locate items like utilities.

**Long chord**- The cord from PC to PT.

**Long tangent**-

**Low point**-

### M

**Magnetic bearing**- The direction toward the magnetic north pole as a reference point.

**Magnetic concrete nail**- Stamped on top of nail. Makes them easier to be found by metal detectors.

**Magnetic north**- The direction in which a magnetic needle of a compass points.

**Mean sea level**- The average height of the surface of the sea.

**Meridian**- An imaginary north-south lines converging at the north and south poles.

**Metes**- A boundary defined by the measurement between terminal points of each straight run used in legal documents.

**Metes and bounds**- The boundary lines of land with angles and points used in legal documents.

**Middle ordinate**- The distance from the midpoint of the curve to the midpoint of the long chord.

**Minimum building setback**- The minimum requirement for a building limits.

**Monument**- A permanent marker set by a land surveyor to reference controll points or property corners.

### N

**Nail in power pole**-

**Nail on top of corner fence post**-

**Nail on top of fence post**-

**No monument found**-

**North boundary line**-

**Not to scale**-

### O

**Offset**- Right angles to the survey line measured horizontal to locate a point off the line.

### P

**Passing sight distance**- The distance a motorist should be able to observe the trafic in order to pass safetly.

**Percolation & Soils Testing**- A field test measuring the rate water moves through soil and helps evaluate the ability of the soil to absorb.

**Photogrammrtry surveying (Aerial survey)**- A survey that takes photographs from elevated ground stations.

**Plane coordinates**- Coordinates that represent the location of points on a plane.

**Platt**- A drawing that represents the survey area such as section corners, bearings and distances, parcel numbers, mineral rights, etc.

**Point of beginning**- In a survey it describe the point at which a meets and bounds description begins.

**Point of circular curve**- The point at which a straight line begins to curve, the point tangency to the curve.

**Point of compound curvature**- A point where curves of different radii meet.

**Point of curve,**See (BC, BVC, PVC) - The point at which a straight line begins to curve, the point tangency to the curve.

**Point of ending**

**Point of intersection,**See (VPI, PVI) - The intersection of two tangent points or where two non-parallel lines intersect.

**Point of reverse curve**- The point in an S-type compound curve where two curves of different polarity meet.

**Point of tangent,**See (EC, EVC, PVT) - The point at which a curved line ends and the point tangency to the curve begins.

**Point of tangent curve**- The point at which a curve ends and a straight line begins.

**Point of vertical curve,**See (BC, BVC, PC) - The point at which a straight line begins to curve, the point tangency to the curve.

**Point of vertical intersection,**See (VPI, PI) - The intersection of two tangent points or where two non-parallel lines intersect.

**Point of vertical tangent,**See (EC, EVC, PT) - The point at which a curved line ends and the point tangency to the curve begins.

**Point on line**- When the endpoint can not be seen from the transit.

**Private storm drain easement**-

**Property line**- Defines the line where properties begin and end.

**Public drainage easement**- Allows public utilities to acces a persons property to make any improvements to drainage as necessary.

### Q

**Quarter corner**- A corner halfway between the corners of a section.

**Quarter section**- Containing more or less 160 acres.

### R

**Radius of a circular curve**- The circle of which the curve is an arc.

**Radius point**- All points are the same distance from the center.

**Rebar and cap**- A rebar 18" long, 1/2" diameter, with a cap having the company name and license number stamped into it.

**Right of way**- The legal right to cross the property of another person.

**Rodman**- A person that holds the rod with an EDM.

### S

**S****ection**- Containing more or less 640 acres, a division of a township.

**Section corner**- A corner at the extreme section boundary.

**Set concrete monument**-

**Set MAG nail**-

**Short tangent**-

**Silt**- Particles ranging in size from 0.002 mm to 0.05 mm.

**Sight distance**-

**Site plan**- A prepared plan used to get approval to construct some type of structure on a piece of property.

**Slurry**- The measurement of the height loss from a compacted cone of fresh concrete.

**Southern boundary line**-

**Steel rebar**-

**Steel rebar set**-

**Stopping sight distance**- The distance traveled by a vehical from the time it is observer to the time it comes to a stop.

**Subdivision survey**- This survey that is used to divide a parcel into smaller parcles.

**Survey**- The field note record of measurements and observations of the work performed.

### T

**Tangent**- A line that touches a curve at just one point such that it is perpendicular to a radius line of the curve.

**Tangent distance**- The distance along the tangents from PI to PC or PT.

**Tangent offset**-

**Thermal expansion coefficient**- The percentage change in the length of the material per degree of temperature change, heated solid or liquid.

**Tie point**- The point where the survey connection is made.

**Topographical survey**- A survey to determine land structure along with the variation in land heights.

**Township**- A quadrangle having sides approximatelly 6 miles in length with parallels and medians.

**Township corner**- A corner at the extreme township boundary that also falls on a section corner.

**Township lines**- Boundary lines that run north and south and stop at range lines.

**Traverse**- A sequence of randomly located distance and angles between measured survey lines and points in order to locate something or set property corners.

**Triangulation**- A survey using numerous triangles are inter-connected and overlapping to measure angles.

**True bearing**- The direction toward the geographic north pole as a reference point.

**True north**- A direction parallel to the earth's axis pointing to the north pole.

**Turn angle**- Using an instrument to measure or set an angle.

**Turning point**-

### U

### V

**Vertical distsnce from VPI to curve**-

**Vertical point of curve**- The point at which a straight line begins to curve, the point tangency to the curve.

**Vertical point of intersection,**See (PVI, PI) - The intersection of two tangent points or where two non-parallel lines intersect.

**Vertical point of tangent**-

### W

**West boundary line**-

**Witness corner**- When a property corner can not be set at a corner, a witness corner is set, usually on the line at a measured distance.

**Witness tree**- A tree close to a section corner used as a reference to the section corner normally on public lands.

### X

### Y

### Z

- See A - B - C - D - E - F - G - H - I - J - K - L - M - N - O - P - Q - R - S - T - U - V - W - X - Y - Z