Surveying Engineering

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Surveying, abbreviated SURV, is the process of determining and recording the three-dimensional positions of angles, distances and points.  The next step is to analyze the information to create a detailed map or legal document to be used for parcel maps and construction.

 

 

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Nomenclature & Symbols

 

  • \( AG \)  -  above ground
  • \( AG \)  -  above grade
  • \( AH \)  -  ahead
  • \( AEC \)  -  areas of environmental concern
  • \( ASPH \)  -  asphalt
  • \( ACS \)  -  auxiliary coordinate system
  • \( AZ \)  -  azimuth
  • \( BS \)  -  backsight
  • \( BT \)  -  back tangent
  • \( BL \)  -  base line
  • \( BEG \)  -  begin
  • \( BC \)  -  beginning of curve
  • \( BVC \)  -  beginning of vertical curve
  • \( BM \)  -  benchmark
  • \( BOC \)  -  bottom of concrete
  • \( BOL \)  -  bottom of line
  • \( BOP \)  -  bottom of pipe
  • \( B_d \)  -  braking distance
  • \( BRG \)  -  bridge
  • \( BRL \)  -  building restriction line
  • \( BSL \)  -  building setback line
  • \( CRB \)  -  capped rebar
  • \( CB \)  -  catch basin
  • \( CL \)  -  centerline
  • \( \Delta \)  -  central angle
  • \( c \)  -  chord
  • \( l \)  -  circle chord arch length
  • \( c \)  -  circle chord length
  • \( d_3 \)  -  clearance length
  • \( CONC \)  -  concrete
  • \( CMB \)  -  concrete median barrier
  • \( Con \;Mon \;F \)  -  concrete momument found
  • \( CONSTR \)  -  construction
  • \( CA \)  -  control of access
  • \( COGO \)  -  coordinate geometry
  • \( CMP \)  -  corrugated metal pipe
  • \( XS \)  -  cross section
  • \( CG \;\) C&G  -  curb and gutter
  • \( CVC \)  -  curve on vertical curve
  • \( DSD \)  -  decision sight distance
  • \( DC \)  -  deflection circular curve
  • \( D \)  -  degree of curve
  • \( DTM \)  -  digital terrain modeling
  • \( DDE \)  -  drainage ditch excavation
  • \( EW \)  -  earthwork
  • \( ELB \)  -  east boundary line
  • \( EOP \)  -  edge of pavement
  • \( EL \)  -  elevation
  • \( EMB \)  -  embankment
  • \( EC \)  -  end of curve
  • \( EVC \)  -  end of vertical curve
  • \( EST \)  -  estimated
  • \( EXC \)  -  excavation
  • \( EXIST \)  -  existing
  • \( EIP \)  -  existing iron pipe
  • \( E \)  -  external distance
  • \( g_2 \)  -  finished grade
  • \( FS \)  -  foresight
  • \( FS \)  -  forward shot
  • \( FT \)  -  forward tangent
  • \( FD \) or \( FND \)  -  found
  • \( FD \) or \( FND \)  -  found corner
  • \( GPPM \)  -  general property parcel map
  • \( GIS \)  -  GIS mapping
  • \(GR\)  -  grade
  • \( g_1 \)  -  grade of back tangent
  • \( g_2 \)  -  grade of forward tangent
  • \( g_2 \)  -  grade final
  • \( g_1 \)  -  grade initial
  • \( GP \)  -  grade point
  • \( HT \)  -  height
  • \( HP \)  -  high point
  • \( g_1 \)  -  Initial grade
  • \( IPPM \)  -  individual property parcel map
  • \( d_1 \)  -  initial maneuver distance
  • \( HI \)  -  instrument height
  • \( IS \)  -  intermediate shot
  • \( I \)  -  intersecting angle
  • \( ISD \)  -  intersection sight distance
  • \( IP \)  -  iron pipe
  • \( IPF \)  -  iron pipe/pin found
  • \( IPS \)  -  iron pipe/pin set
  • \( IRF \)  -  iron rod found
  • \( IRS \)  -  iron rod set
  • \( JCT \)  -  junction
  • \( JB \)  -  junction box
  • \( K \)  -  K value
  • \( LM \)  -  landmark
  • \( L \) or \( LC \)  -  length of curve
  • \( LT \)  -  left
  • \( L \)  -  length of vertical curve
  • \( LS \)  -  License/Land Surveyoe #
  • \( L.O.D. \)  -  limit of disturbance
  • \( LIS \)  -  LIS mapping
  • \( LC \)  -  long cord
  • \( LT \)  -  long tangent
  • \( LP \)  -  low point
  • \( MAG \)  -  magnetic concrete nail
  • \( MH \)  -  manhole
  • \( MAT \)  -  material
  • \( MSL \)  -  mean sea level
  • \( MD \)  -  middle
  • \( M \)  -  middle ordinate
  • \( MBS \)  -  minimum building setback
  • \( NPP \)  -  nail in power pole
  • \( NTCFP \)  -  nail on top of corner fence post
  • \( NTFP \)  -  nail on top of fence post
  • \( NMS \)  -  no monument found
  • \( NBL \)  -  north boundary line
  • \( NTS \)  -  not to scale
  • \( PSD \)  -  passing sight distance
  • \( PVMT \)  -  pavement
  • \( PUE \)  -  pavement utility easement
  • \( POB \)  -  point of beginning
  • \( POC \)  -  point of circular curve
  • \( PCC \)  -  point of compound curvature
  • \( PC \)  -  point of curve
  • \( POE \)  -  point of ending
  • \( PI \)  -  point of intersection
  • \( PRC \)  -  point of reverse curve
  • \( PT \)  -  point of tangent
  • \( PTC \)  -  point of tangent curve
  • \( PVC \)  -  point of vertical curve
  • \( PVI \)  -  point of vertical intersection
  • \( PVT \)  -  point of vertical tangent
  • \( POL \)  -  point of line
  • \( PSDE \)  -  private storm drain easement
  • \( PL \)  -  property line
  • \( PDE \)  -  public drainage easement
  • \( R \)  -  radius of a circular curve
  • \( RP \)  -  radius point
  • \( R/C \)  -  rebar and cap
  • \( REINF \)  -  reinforced
  • \( RCBC \)  -  reinforced concrete box culvert
  • \( RCP \)  -  reinforced concrete pipe
  • \( REM \)  -  remove
  • \( REPL \)  -  replace
  • \( RT \)  -  right
  • \( ROW \)  -  right of way
  • \( SCM \)  -  set concrete monument
  • \( SMN \)  -  set MAG nail
  • \( ST \)  - short tangent
  • \( S \)  -  sight distance
  • \( m \)  -  slope
  • \( SS \)  -  slope stakes
  • \( SBL \)  -  south boundary line
  • \( STD \)  -  standard
  • \( SPCS \)  -  State Plane Coordinate System
  • \( STA \)  -  station
  • \( SR \)  -  steel rod
  • \( SRS \)  -  steel rebar set
  • \( SSD \)  -  stopping sight distance
  • \( STR \)  -  structure
  • \( SYM \)  -  symbol
  • \( T \)  -  tangent distance
  • \( E \)  -  tangent offset
  • \( TEMP \)  -  temporary
  • \( TOC \)  -  top of concrete
  • \( TOP \)  -  top of pipe
  • \( TOS \)  -  top of steel
  • \( TP \)  -  turning point
  • \( TYP \)  -  typical
  • \( E \)  -  vertical distance from VPI to curve
  • \( VPC \)  -  vertical point of curve
  • \( VPI \)  -  vertical point of intersection
  • \( VPT \)  -  vertical point of tangent
  • \( WBL \)  -  west boundary line
  • \( WLB \)  -  wetland limit boundary
  • \( WCR \)  -  wheelchair ramp
  • \( WCC \)  -  wheelchair ramp curb cut
  • \( WC \)  -  witness corner

 

Surveying Engineering Glossary

 

Surveying Types

  • Geodetic Survey  - Takes into account the true shape of the earth.  These surveys are highly precision and extend over large areas.
  • Plane Survey  -  A surveying in which the mean surface of the earth is considered as a plane, or in which its spheroidal shape is neglected, with regard to horizontal distances and directions.

 

Surveying Methods

  • ALTA Survey  -  A boundary survey that adheres to a set of minimum standards established by the American Land Title Association and the American Congress on Surveying and Maping.
  • Astronomical Survey  -  Gathers astronomical data over some portions of the sky.
  • Boundary Survey  -  Determines property lines and defines the true property corners on parcel maps of a land description.
  • Cartographic Survey  -  Map making from origional surveys.
  • Construction Survey  -  Used to establish the desired position of building corners, roads, sidewalks, and utilities.
  • Engineering Survey  -  Surveys performed for the location, design, construction, maintenance and operation of engineering projects.
  • Geological Survey  - An examination of an area to determine the composition, distribution, history, and structure of rocks.
  • GPS Satellite Survey  -  Uses a satellite-based navigation system which communicates with receivers on the ground, collects and calculates data.
  • Hydrographic Survey  -  Measures and describes the physical features of the navigation position of the earth's surface and adjoining coastal areas.
  • Land Survey  -  Establishes or restablishes property corners, boundaries, lines, and monuments of property.
  • Marine Survey  -  A person who conducts inspections and examinations of marine vessels, appraisal, assets, cargo, damage, and insurance.
  • Mining Survey  -  Helps find underground resources and potential mining locations.
  • Right-of-way Survey  -  A right of passage to another person's land and property.  A boundary survey depicting the limits of private ownership. 
  • Topographic Survey  -  Gatheres data regarding the elevation points on a piece of land, also includes natural and man-made elevations.

 

Surveying Process

  • Obtain existing deeds and property information
  • Read and understand the property documents
  • Prepare a base boundary plan
  • Locate a known corner
  • Do the field survey
  • Prepare the existing conditions plan
  • Resolve any boundary issues
  • Obtain any other requied survey information
  • Prepare the connstruction stake-out survey
  • Prepare the as-built survey

 

Map types

  • Boundary map
  • Climate map
  • Flood map
  • Geographic map
  • Historic maps
  • Oceanography map
  • Parcle map
  • Plat map
  • Property survey map
  • Record of survey map
  • Resources map
  • Road map
  • Right-of-way map
  • Topographic map
  • Weather map
  • Zip code map
  • etc.

 

Surveying Engineering Glossary

A

  • Accepted Survey  -  A survey accepted by the official having cadastral survey approval authority.
  • Adjoiner  -  To owner of land which touches the land of another.
  • Adjoining  -  To be in contact with, touching or contiguous.
  • Altitude  - The height of a vertical angle from the horizon.
  • Angle  -  Two rays sharing a common point.
  • Angle Point  -  A point in a survey where the alinement of boundary deflects from a straight line.
  • Arc Definition  -  The degree of the curve (D) is the angle formed by two radii drawn from the center of the circle to the ends of the arc.
  • Asbuilt Survey  -  A survey that is done after the completion of a construction project.
  • Assumed Meridian  -  On certain types of localized surveys, it may not be necessary to establish a true, magnetic, or grid direction.
  • Azimith  -  A line on the ground is its horizontal angle measured from the meridian to the line.

B

  • Backsight  -  A sight on a previously established survey point.
  • Back Tangent  -  The tangent back to the curve.
  • Baseline  -  The east-west line that divides townships.
  • Bearing  -  An angle in degrees measured clockwise from north.
  • Beginning of Curve, See (BVC, PVC, PC)  -  The point at which a straight line begins to curve, the point tangency to the curve.
  • Beginning of Vertical Curve, See (BC, PVC, PC)  -  The point at which a straight line begins to curve, the point tangency to the curve.
  • Benchmark  -  A relatively fixed point whose coordinates and elevation datum are used for leveling and construction.
  • Blaze  -  A mark made upon a tree trunk.
  • Boundary Line  -  A line of demarcation between adjoining parcels of land.
  • Boundary Monument  -  An object placed on or near a boundary line to preserve and identify the location of the boundary line.
  • Boundary Survey  -  A mathematically closed diagram of the complete outside boundary of a site.
  • Bounds  -  A general description of buildings, property, roads, and etc. used in legal documents.
  • Branch  -  Small stream.
  • Broken Boundary  -  A series of line segments representing a boundary which is not a straight line.
  • Brook  -  Small stream.
  • Bug  -  A magnetic locator to search for an iron pipe.

C 

  • Cadastral Survey  -  A survey that is carried out to describe boundaries and land ownership.
  • Call  -  Any feature, landmark, or measurement called out in a survey.
  • Capped Rebar  -  A rebar 18" long, 1/2" diameter, with a cap having the company name and license number stamped into it.
  • Celestial Meridian  -  The largest circle of the celestial sphere passing through the celestial poles and an observer's zenith.
  • Central Angle  -  The angle formed by two radii drawn from the center of the circle (0) to PC and PT.
  • Chaining  -  The measuring a distance using a chain or tape.
  • Chord  -  A line segment on the interior of a circle.
  • Clay  -  Particles ranging in size from 0.002 mm and smaller.
  • Closing Corner  -  A corner established where a survey line intersects a previous fixed boundary at a point between corners.
  • Collapse Slump  -  The fresh concrete collapses completely.
  • Compass  - A magnetic compass has a magnetic needle that points north.
  • Closed Joint  -  A joint that is invisible or barely visible between two adjacent slabs or stones.
  • Compass Bearing  -  Uses magnetic north as a reference point.
  • Concrete Monument Found  -  A permanent marker set by a land surveyor to reference controll points or property corners.
  • Construction Survey  -  Surveying measurements made before or while the site is under construction.
  • Contour Interval  - The difference in elevation between adjacent contours as shown on a map.
  • Contour Line  -  An imaginary line on the ground having all points on the same elevation.
  • Contour Map  -  A map that illustrates relief by means of contour lines. 
  • Contours  - Lines joining points of equal elevation as shown on a topographic map.
  • Control Points  - Fixed points of known coordinates.
  • Coordinate System  -  A grid where the axes are apart 90 degrees.
  • Coordinates  -  Two lines, latitude and longitude that intersect creating a point.
  • Corner  -  The location of intersecting boundary lines.
  • Cotton Spindle  -  A 6" to 8" spindle used where you would typically use an iron pipe or rebar as a momument.
  • Creek  -  Small stream.
  • Culvert  -  A pipe or tunnel that carrys a stream under a road or highway.

D

  • Data Collector  -  A handheld electronic field notebook.
  • Datum  -  An abstract coordinate system used to reference a known location.
  • Declination  -  The difference between geographic north (true) and magnetic north.
  • Deed  -  A document that transfers title to real property.
  • Deep Well  -  A well that draws water from beneath an impermeable stratum.
  • Deflection Angle  -  The angle between a tangent and the ends of the chords from the PC.
  • Deflection Circular Curve  -  The deflection angle for a full circular angle measures from tangent at PC or PT.
  • Degree of Curve -  The flatness or shapeness of the curve.

E

  • Easement  -  The legal right to use another persons personal property.
  • Easement Survey  -  Prepared between parties to allow the use of part of an allotment.
  • EDM  -  Electromagnetic Distance Measurement device.
  • Egress  -  The right to go on the land of another.
  • Elevation  -  A vertical distance up or down from a fixed point.
  • Elevation Survey  -  Used to determine the elevation of a structure and it's relationship to the floorplan.
  • Ellicott's Control Survey  -  The meridian northward from the point of beginning of the United States cadastral survey.  A point established on August 20, 1785on the north bank of the Ohio River.
  • Encroachment  -  An unlawful and adverse intrusion within the boundary of a property.
  • Encrumbrance  -  Any right to or intrest in land which makes it subject to a change or liability.
  • End of Curve, See (EVC, PVT, PT)  -  The point at which a curved line ends and the point tangency to the curve begins.
  • End of Vertical Curve, See (EC, PVT, PT)  -  The point at which a curved line ends and the point tangency to the curve begins.
  • Entry  -  An application to acquire title to public lands.
  • Entry Allowed  -  An application to acquire title to public lands which has been approved, either as an origional entry or a final entry.
  • Entryman  -  One who makes an entry of land under the public land laws of the United States.
  • Erosion  -  The natural wearing away of the earth's surface by rainfall and surface runoff.
  • Expert Witness  -  A person who testifies as what he has observed by sight, sound, etc.
  • External Distance  -  The distance from the PI to the midpoint of the curve.

F

  • Federal Land  -  All classes of land owned by the Federal Government.
  • Fee Tail  -  An estimate limited to one class of heirs.
  • Field Notes  -  A permanent record of field procedures and data collected in those procedures.
  • Final Certificate  -  A document which evidences that an entryman is entitled to a patent provided that no irregularities are found in connection with his entry.
  • Final Entry  -  When an application to acquire title to public lands has been filed in the proper manner and all the requirements of law and government regulations have been complied with.
  • First Station  -  Point of beginning (POB)
  • Found Corner  -  An existing corner on a public land survey found by a field survey.
  • Furlong  -  A distance of 220 yards or 40 poles.

G

  • Geodesy  -  The science and mathmatical calculations of the shape and size of the earth.
  • Geodetic Survey  -  A percise survey that takes in long distances showing shape of the world.
  • Geometry  -  A branch of mathematics that deals with shapes and their properties or relationships to circles, lines, points, etc.  These relationships can be expressed in plane geometry, two-dimensional figures and solid geometry, three-dimensional figures.
  • GIS Mapping, See (LIS)  -  Geographic Information System is used to locate items like utilities.
  • Gore  -  A thin triangular piece of land.
  • Grade  -  A rise or decline in elevation.
  • Gradient  -  The rate of rise and fall.
  • Grid  -  A group of parallel lines that run perpendicular to another group of parallel perpendicular lines.
  • Grid Azimuth  -  Measured from grid north.
  • Grid Bearing  -  The northwards direction along the grid lines of a map used as a reference point.
  • Grid Distance  -  The distance between two points using mapping coordinates.
  • Grid Meridian  -  In plane surveys it is convenient to perform the work in a rectangular XY coordinate system in which one central meridial concides with a true meridian.
  • Grid North  -  The direction of the north-south grid lines on a state plane coordinate system.
  • Grid Position  -  The grid coordinates of a point.
  • Ground Distance  -  The horizontal distance with curvature between two ground points.
  • Gunter's Chain  - A distance of 66 feet or 4 poles.

H

  • Half Section  -  Containing more or less 360 acres.
  • Head  -  The source of a stream.
  • Headwaters  -  The smallest streams that combine to make a larger stream.
  • High Water  -  The maximum height reached by rising water.
  • Horizontal  -  Parallel to a flat or level surface of the earth.
  • Horizontal Distance  -  The distance horizontally between two points.
  • Horizontal Line  -  A line extending left or right but not up or down.
  • Horizontal Position  -  A point with horizontal coordinates only.
  • Hydrography  -  Features including lakes, rivers, streams, swamps, and other water features.

I

  • Ingress  -  The right to enter a tract of land.
  • Intersecting Angle  -  The deflection angle at the PI.
  • Intersection Sight Distance  -  The distance a motorist should be able to see other traffic in the intersection in order to enter safetly.
  • Iron Pipe  -  A pipe 18" long, 3/4" outside diameter, with a plastic cap set inside having the company name and license number stamped into it.

J

  • Junior Rights  -  Subordinate to the senior rights.
  • Junior Survey  -  A survey made subsequent to an earlier survet.

K

L

  • Laches  -  Failure to do something which should be done or to claim or enforce a right at a proper time.
  • Landmark  -  A marker made on a permanent feature of the land like rocks, trees, etc.
  • Land Court  -  A tribunal established for the purpose of administering legislative statutes relating to land boundaries and titles.
  • Land District  -  The area administered by a particular land office.
  • Land Office  -  A government office, subordinate to the General Land Office.
  • Land Survey  -  The act of surveying to establish the correct property description or establish land boundaries.
  • League  -  A marine measure of distance.
  • Legend  -
  • Length of Curve (Horizontal)  -  The distance from PC to PT.
  • Levee  -  Artificial embankment confining a channel, stream, or body of water.
  • Leveling  -  Using a graduated rod to establish difference in heights of the terrain.
  • Licensed/Land Surveyor #  -
  • LiDAR (Aerial Survey)  -  A survey using remote sensors of light reflected by lasers to measure distances.
  • Limited Boundary  -  The boundary of lands actually surveyed.
  • LIS Mapping, See (GIS)  -  Land Information System is used to locate items like utilities.
  • Long Chord  -  The cord from PC to PT.

M

  • Magnetic Bearing  -  The direction toward the magnetic north pole as a reference point.
  • Magnetic Concrete Nail  -  Stamped on top of nail.  Makes them easier to be found by metal detectors.
  • Magnetic Meridian  -  Lies parallel with the magnetic lines of force of the earth.
  • Magnetic North  -  The direction in which a magnetic needle of a compass points.
  • Map  -  A representation of the earth's surface.
  • Map Scale  -  A relationship between the distance on the map compared to the distance on the earth's surface.
  • Meander  -  Meander of something.  A line follows the twists and turns of a stream.
  • Mean Sea Level  -  The average height of the surface of the sea.
  • Merestone  -  A stone that marks a boundary.
  • Meridian  -  Imaginary north-south lines converging at the north and south poles.
  • Metes  -  A boundary defined by the measurement between terminal points of each straight run used in legal documents.
  • Metes and Bounds  -  The boundary lines of land with angles and points used in legal documents.
  • Middle Ordinate  -  The distance from the midpoint of the curve to the midpoint of the long chord.
  • Minimum Building Setback  -  The minimum requirement for a building limits.
  • Monument  -  A permanent marker set by a land surveyor to reference controll points or property corners.
  • Mouth  -  A place where a stream enters another larger stream.

N

O

  • Offset  -  Right angles to the survey line measured horizontal to locate a point off the line.

P

  • Parcel  -  An area of land defined by measurement.
  • Passing Sight Distance  -  The distance a motorist should be able to observe the trafic in order to pass safetly.
  • Percolation & Soils Testing  -  A field test measuring the rate water moves through soil and helps evaluate the ability of the soil to absorb.
  • Photogrammrtry Surveying (Aerial Survey)  -  A survey that takes photographs from elevated ground stations.
  • Plane Coordinates  -  Coordinates that represent the location of points on a plane.
  • Plane Survey  -  A survey in which the effect of the curvature of the earth is not relevant.
  • Plat  -  A drawing that represents the survey area such as section corners, bearings and distances, parcel numbers, mineral rights, etc.
  • Point of Beginning  -  In a survey it describe the point at which a meets and bounds description begins.
  • Point of Circular Curve  -  The point at which a straight line begins to curve, the point tangency to the curve.
  • Point of Compound Curvature  -  A point where curves of different radii meet.
  • Point of Curve, See (BC, BVC, PVC)  -  The point at which a straight line begins to curve, the point tangency to the curve.
  • Point of Ending  -  In a survey it description to describe the point at which a meets and bounds description ends.
  • Point of Intersection, See (VPI, PVI)  -  The intersection of two tangent points or where two non-parallel lines intersect.
  • Point of Reverse Curve  -  The point in an S-type compound curve where two curves of different polarity meet.
  • Point of Tangent, See (EC, EVC, PVT)  -  The point at which a curved line ends and the point tangency to the curve begins.
  • Point of Rangent Curve  -  The point at which a curve ends and a straight line begins.
  • Point of Vertical Curve, See (BC, BVC, PC)  -  The point at which a straight line begins to curve, the point tangency to the curve.
  • Point of Vertical Intersection, See (VPI, PI)  -  The intersection of two tangent points or where two non-parallel lines intersect.
  • Point of Vertical Tangent, See (EC, EVC, PT)  -  The point at which a curved line ends and the point tangency to the curve begins.
  • Point on Line  -  When the endpoint can not be seen from the transit.
  • Prime Meridian  -  The initial or zero meridian of imaginary north-south lines converging at the north and south poles.
  • Prime Vertical  -  The largest circle at right angles to the celestial meridian of imaginary east-west lines.
  • Property Line  -  Defines the line where properties begin and end.
  • Public Drainage Easement  -  Allows public utilities to acces a persons property to make any improvements to drainage as necessary.
  • Pythagorean Theorem  -  The hypotenuse is the sum of the squares of the other two sides in a right triangle.

Q

  • Quarter Corner  -  A corner halfway between the corners of a section.
  • Quarter Section  -  Containing more or less 160 acres.

R

  • Radius of a Circular Curve  -  The circle of which the curve is an arc.
  • Radius Point  -  All points are the same distance from the center.
  • Rebar and Cap  -  A rebar 18" long, 1/2" diameter, with a cap having the company name and license number stamped into it.
  • Right of Way  -  The legal right to cross the property of another person.
  • River  -  large stream.
  • Rodman  -  A person that holds the rod with an EDM.

S

  • Section  -  Containing more or less 640 acres, a division of a township.
  • Section Corner  -  A corner at the extreme section boundary.
  • Silt  -  Particles ranging in size from 0.002 mm to 0.05 mm.
  • Site Plan  -  A prepared plan used to get approval to construct some type of structure on a piece of property.
  • Slurry  -  The measurement of the height loss from a compacted cone of fresh concrete.
  • Spring  -  A pool or other sourceof water that feeds a stream.
  • State Plane Coordinate System  -  A coordinate systen having perpendicular lines going north to south and east to west.  It is only used in the US.
  • Stopping Sight Distance  -  The distance traveled by a vehical from the time it is observer to the time it comes to a stop.
  • Subdivision Survey  -  This survey that is used to divide a parcel into smaller parcles.
  • Survey  -  The field note record of measurements and observations of the work performed.
  • Swamp  -  Wetlands that features permanent large areas of land with shallow bodies of water that include a large amount of trees.

T

  • Tangent  -  A line that touches a curve at just one point such that it is perpendicular to a radius line of the curve.
  • Tangent Distance  -  The distance along the tangents from PI to PC or PT.
  • Thermal Expansion Coefficient  -  The percentage change in the length of the material per degree of temperature change, heated solid or liquid.
  • Tie Line  -  A survey line that connects a point to other surveyed lines.
  • Tie Point  -  The point where the survey connection is made.
  • Topographical Map  -  A detailed map that represents graphically the earth's features.
  • Topographical Survey  -  A survey to determine land structure along with the variation in land heights.
  • Township  -  A quadrangle having sides approximatelly 6 miles in length with parallels and medians.
  • Township Corner  -  A corner at the extreme township boundary that also falls on a section corner.
  • Township Lines  - Boundary lines that run north and south and stop at range lines.
  • Traverse  -  A sequence of randomly located distance and angles between measured survey lines and points in order to locate something or set property corners.
  • Triangulation  -  A survey using numerous triangles are inter-connected and overlapping to measure angles.
  • True Bearing  -  The direction toward the geographic north pole as a reference point.
  • True Meridian (Astronomical)  -  A plane passing through a point on the surface of the earth and containing the earth's axis of rotation.
  • True North  -  A direction parallel to the earth's axis pointing to the north pole.
  • Turn Angle  -  Using an instrument to measure or set an angle.
  • Turning Points  -  Temporary points of a known elevation.

U

  • Unsurveyed Lands  -  Lands not yet surveyed.
  • Upland  -  Ground elevated above the lowlands along rivers.
  • U.S Survey  -  A metes and bounds survey excuted to comply with one of various regulations for entry of public lands.

V

  • Vertical Point of Curve  -  The point at which a straight line begins to curve, the point tangency to the curve.
  • Vertical Point of Intersection, See (PVI, PI)  -  The intersection of two tangent points or where two non-parallel lines intersect.

W

  • Warrant  -  A promise that a statement is true.
  • Water Course  -  A visible channel for water such as a channel, ditch, streambed, or etc.
  • Way  -  A road, street or other passage.
  • Wildlife Refuge  -  A reserve for the protection of wildlife.
  • Witness Corner  -  When a property corner can not be set at a corner, a witness corner is set, usually on the line at a measured distance.
  • Witness Tree  -  A tree close to a section corner used as a reference to the section corner normally on public lands.  

X

  • X  -  A latitude or distance along the east-west axis in a coordinate system.

Y

  • Y  -  A latitude or distance along the north-south axis in a coordinate system.

Z

 

 

Display #
Title
Elevation
Grade
Simple Circular Curve

Tags: Equations for Surveying