Nomenclature & Symbols
Civil Engineering Glossary
- A - B - C - D - E - F - G - H - I - J - K - L - M - N - O - P - Q - R - S - T - U - V - W - X - Y - Z
- Accepted survey - A survey accepted by the official having cadastral survey approval authority.
- Adjoiner - To owner of land which touches the land of another.
- Adjoining - To be in contact with, touching or contiguous.
- Angle point - A point in a survey where the alinement of boundary deflects from a straight line.
- Azimith - The direction of a line related to north.
- Base line - The east-west line that divides townships.
- Bearing - An angle in degrees measured clockwise from north.
- Benchmark - A relatively fixed point whose coordinates and elevation datum are used for leveling and construction.
- Boundary line - A line of demarcation between adjoining parcels of land.
- Boundary monument - An object placed on or near a boundary line to preserve and identify the location of the boundary line.
- Boundary survey - A mathematically closed diagram of the complete outside boundary of a site.
- Bounds - A general description of buildings, property, roads, and etc. used in legal documents.
- Broken boundary - A series of line segments representing a boundary which is not a straight line.
- Chaining - The measuring a distance using a chain or tape.
- Closing corner - A corner established where a survey line intersects a previous fixed boundary at a point between corners.
- Closed joint - A joint that is invisible or barely visible between two adjacent slabs or stones.
- Column - A structural shape used to carry a load on its vertical axis.
- Compass bearing - Uses magnetic north as a reference point.
- Concrete monument found - A permanent marker set by a land surveyor to reference controll points or property corners.
- Corner - The location of intersecting boundary lines.
- Coordinate system - A grid where the axes are apart 90 degrees.
- Datum - An abstract coordinate system used to reference a known location.
- Deed - A document that transfers title to real property.
- Deep well - A well that draws water from beneath an impermeable stratum.
- Easement - The legal right to use another persons personal property.
- Egress - The right to go on the land of another.
- External distance - The distance from the PI to the midpoint of the curve.
- Footing - A structural member used to distribute the loads to the soil in such a way that the load bearing capacity of the soil is not exceded for building or structure foundation, walls and columns. Footings are generally associated with shallow foundations. Piers are normally associated with deeper foundations.
- Found corner - An existing corner on a public land survey found by a field survey.
- Foundation - Supports a building or structure and transfers the load level across the soil.
- Geodetic survey - A percise survey that takes in the shape of the world.
- Grid bearing - The northwards direction along the grid lines of a map used as a reference point.
- Grid north - The direction of the north-south grid lines on a state plane coordinate system.
- Half section - Containing more or less 360 acres.
- Ingress - The right to enter a tract of land.
- Landmark - A marker made on a permanent feature of the land like rocks, trees, etc.
- Land Surveying - The act of surveying to establish the correct property description or establish land boundaries.
- Licensed/Land Surveyor # (LS) -
- Magnetic bearing - The direction toward the magnetic north pole as a reference point.
- Magnetic concrete nail - Stamped on top of nail. Makes them easier to be found by metal detectors.
- Magnetic north - The direction in which a magnetic needle of a compass points.
- Mean sea level - The average height of the surface of the sea.
- Meridian - An imaginary north-south lines converging at the north and south poles.
- Metes - A boundary defined by the measurement between terminal points of each straight run used in legal documents.
- Monument - A permanent marker set by a land surveyor to reference controll points or property corners.
- Plane coordinates - Coordinates that represent the location of points on a plane.
- Platt - A drawing that represents the survey area such as section corners, bearings and distances, parcel numbers, mineral rights, etc.
- Public drainage easement - Allows public utilities to acces a persons property to make any improvements to drainage as necessary.
- Quarter corner - A corner halfway between the corners of a section.
- Quarter section - Containing more or less 160 acres.
- Right of way - The legal right to cross the property of another person.
- Section - Containing more or less 640 acres, a division of a township.
- Section corner - A corner at the extreme section boundary.
- Survey - The field note record of measurements and observations of the work performed.
- Township - A quadrangle having sides approximatelly 6 miles in length with parallels and medians.
- Township corner - A corner at the extreme township boundary that also falls on a section corner.
- Township lines - Boundary lines that run north and south and stop at range lines.
- True bearing - The direction toward the geographic north pole as a reference point.
- True north - A direction parallel to the earth's axis pointing to the north pole.
- Turn angle - Using an instrument to measure or set an angle.
- Utility easement - A utility company has the right to access another persons property to install, maintain, and repair without actually owning the propery.
- Witness corner - When a property corner can not be set at a corner, a witness corner is set, usually on the line at a measured distance.