HVAC Engineering

HVAC banner 3HVAC stands for Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning.  It refers to the technology, systems, and equipment used to control and regulate indoor environmental conditions, such as temperature, humidity, air quality, and air flow.  HVAC systems are commonly used in residential, commercial, and industrial buildings to provide thermal comfort and acceptable indoor air quality.


Science Branches

Applied Science
Mechanical Engineering

HVAC Index

Heating systems, a component of HVAC, are used to maintain a comfortable indoor temperature by generating heat using various methods, such as boilers, furnaces, or heat pumps.  Air conditioning systems, on the other hand, are used to cool indoor spaces by removing heat and humidity from the air.  They use refrigeration technology to transfer heat from indoor air to the outside environment.  Ventilation systems are used to maintain indoor air quality by exchanging fresh outdoor air with indoor air, removing pollutants, and regulating humidity levels.  Proper ventilation is essential for occupant health and comfort, as well as for preventing the buildup of harmful gases, such as carbon monoxide.

HVAC systems typically consist of equipment such as air handlers, heat pumps, ducts, fans, filters, and controls.  They may be controlled by thermostats or other automated systems that adjust heating and cooling based on indoor and outdoor temperatures and other environmental factors.  Efficient and effective HVAC systems are important for reducing energy consumption, improving indoor air quality, and ensuring occupant comfort.  Regular maintenance and cleaning are essential for keeping HVAC systems operating at peak efficiency and preventing potential problems.


HVAC Types

  • Duct-free Mini-split System  -  This system has two main components, an outdoor compressor/condenser and an indoor air-handling unit, evaporator.  They are easy to install usually requiring only hole through a wall for the conduit, which houses the power and communication cables, copper tubing, and a condensation drain line, linking the outdoor and indoor units.
  • Ductless HVAC System  -  Involves the installation of two main pieces of equipment, an outdoor compressor/condenser unit that cools and heats air and an indoor air handler that distributes the air.  These components are connected by conduit that contains power and refrigerant lines through your home’s exterior wall, eliminating the need for ducts.
  • Heat Pump System  -  When a heat pump operates, it pumps refrigerant through the lines that absorb the heat within your home.  That refrigerant then circulates from the indoor air handler to the outdoor unit to release that heat. When you want to heat up your home, you simply switch the setting to heat to reverse the process and bring heat into your home.
  • Hybrid Split System  -  A hybrid heating system is the combination of an electric heat pump and a gas furnace.  The combination provides the advantages of both systems while eliminating the drawbacks of each.  The heat pump portion works throughout the summer and much of the winter.  When the temperature gets low enough, the gas furnace takes over.
  • Hydronic Heating System  -  A hydronic system uses water or steam, heated by a boiler, to heat your home. Water enters the boiler’s combustion chamber through a circulator; once heated, the water is distributed through pipes to heat baseboards or radiators throughout your home. The water is eventually recycled back to the boiler to be reheated and used again.
  • Packaged Heating and Cooling System  -  An all-in-one heating and cooling system for spaces that don’t have enough indoor room to house a furnace or an air handler.  A packaged system contains all of its components in a single outdoor unit, which sits on the side of your property or on the roof.
  • Portable Spot Cooler  -  This is an alternative when you cannot install a traditional air conditioning system.  Just roll a unit into place, plug in the power, attach some flexible duct to vent the hot air.
  • Split System  -  The system consists of an outdoor unit and an indoor unit.  The outdoor unit is installed on or near the exterior wall of the room that you wish to cool.
  • Zoned System  -  The system is designed to provide varying temperature conditions in a house or building.  The system helps to customize the cooling and heating effects for different rooms or locations in a building.


HVAC System Requirements

  • Primary Equipment
    • Heating Equipment
    • Cooling Equipment
    • Air Delivery Equipment
  • Space Requirement
    • Equipment Room
    • HVAC Facilitie
    • Fan Room
    • Vertical Shaft
    • Equipment Access
  • Air Distribution
    • Terminal Unit
    • Ductwork
  • Piping
    • System Piping
    • Delivery Piping


Central HVAC System

  • All Air System
    • Single Zone
    • Multizone
    • Terminal Reheat
    • Dual Duct
    • Variable Air Volume
  • Air Water System
    • Fan Coil Unit
    • Induction Unit
  • All Water System
    • Fan Coil Unit
  • Water Source Heat Pump
  • Heating and Cooling Panel


Local HVAC System

  • Local Heating System
  • Local Cooling Sysyem
  • Local Ventilation System
  • Local Air Conditioning System
    • Window Air Conditioner
    • Unitary Air Conditioner
    • Packaged Rooftop Air Conditioner
  • Split System


Basic Parts of a HVAC System

  • Main Unit
  • Heat Exchanger
  • Thermostat
  • Combustion Chamber
  • Blower Motor
  • Condenser Coil
  • Evaporator Coil


HVAC Abbreviations

  • British Thermal Unit (BTU)
  • Chilled Water (CHW)
  • Chilled Water Pump (CHWP)
  • Chilled Water Return (CHWR)
  • Chilled Water Return Temperature (CHWRT)
  • Chilled Water Supply (CWS)
  • Chilled Water Supply Temperature (CWST)
  • Cooling Load Factor (CLF)
  • Cooling Load Temperature Difference (CLTD)
  • Cooling Tower (CT)
  • Demand Controlled Ventilation (DCV)
  • Dew Point (DP)
  • Digital Input (DI)
  • Digital Output (DO)
  • Direct Current (DC)
  • Direct Digital Control (DDC)
  • Discharge Air (DA)
  • Dry Bulb (DB)
  • Duct Heater (DH)
  • Electric Heater (EH)
  • Electric Unit Heater (EUH)
  • Energy Efficiency Ratio (EER)
  • Energy Management System (EMS)
  • Entering Air Temperature (EAT)
  • Entering Water Temperature (EWT)
  • Exhaust Fan (EF)
  • Facility Management System (FMS)
  • Fan Coil Unit (FCU)
  • Feed Water (FW)
  • Heat Exchanger (HX)
  • Heat Recovery (HR)
  • Heat Recovery Unit (HRU)
  • Heat Recovery Ventilator (HRV)
  • Heating Seasonal Performance Factor (HSPF)
  • Heating Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC)
  • High Pressure Steam (HPS)
  • Hot Water Pump (HWP)
  • Hot Water Return (HWR)
  • Hot Water Supply (HWS)
  • Leaving Air Temperature (LAT)
  • Leaving Water Temperature (LWT)
  • Local Operating Network (LON)
  • Low Pressure (LP)
  • Low Pressure Steam (LPS)
  • Mixed Air (MA)
  • Mixed Air Temperature (MAT)
  • Temperature (T)
  • Thermostat (TSTAT)
  • Thermostatic Expansion Valve (TEV)
  • Wet Bulb (WB)


Piping Designer Logo 1




Display #
Air Change
Air Changes Per Hour
Air Conditioning
Air Diffuser
Air Infiltration

Tags: Mechanical Heat Air HVAC Heat Exchanger Engineering