Pipe

pipe banner 3A pipe is a tubular or cylindrical shaped object that is used to transport fluids or gases from one location to another.  Pipe is identified by nominal pipe size and the wall thickness identified by schedule number.  Pipes are made from a variety of materials, such as metal, plastic, or concrete, depending on the application and the type of fluid or gas being transported.  Pipes can be used for a variety of purposes, including transporting water, oil, natural gas, and other materials in residential, commercial, and industrial settings.  They can also be used for drainage and sewage systems, as well as in HVAC (heating, ventilation, and air conditioning) systems.


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Pipe InDex

Pipes come in many different sizes and shapes, and can be joined together using a variety of methods, such as welding, threading, or using fittings.  The choice of pipe and joining method depends on the specific requirements of the application, such as the pressure, temperature, and corrosiveness of the fluid or gas being transported.  Pipes play a critical role in modern infrastructure and are essential for the efficient and safe transportation of fluids and gases in a wide range of industries and applications.

 

Pipe Material Design Classification

  • Metal Pipe  -  The difference between ferrous and non-ferrous metals is that ferrous metals contain iron and non-ferrous metals do not.
    • Ferrous Pipe  -  Ferrous metals contain iron.
      • Alloy Steel Pipe  -  When you add various metallic and non-metallic elements in a specific amount to carbon steel, it will change the properties of carbon steel. We can manipulate these percentages of alloying elements in steel to achieve better properties than plain carbon steel.
      • Carbon Steel Pipe  -  Carbon steel pipes have a durability that can be advanced by adding coatings that will stop rust.  This will lead to an extended life of the pipe.  The pipe is highly resistant to shock and vibration, which allows it to be ideal when transporting.  This strength, in addition to its elasticity, allows it to be used safely under high-pressure conditions.  The steel pipe will not bend or break.
      • Cast Iron Pipe  -  Cast iron pipes were widely used for the transportation of water and sewage before plastic pipes were invented.   Though cast iron pipes corrode over time, the rust forms a layer over the remaining pipe that slows down corrosion.
      • Chrome Pipe  -  This pipe is typically utilized in high temperature and pressure applications due to its tensile strengths, yield strength, fatigue resistance, toughness and wear resistance.
      • Ductile Iron Pipe  -  Ductile iron pipe is made from ductile cast iron, a graphite rich cast iron in which the graphite has a spheroidal shaped molecular structure.  This molecular structure makes the cast iron less brittle and more resistant to impact than the other varieties, which have a flaky structure. The pipe is used in water and sewer lines.
      • Stainless Steel Pipe  -  Stainless steel pipe is primarily used in piping systems for the transport of fluids or gases because of their duribility, strength, and corrosion resistant properties.
      • Wrought Iron Pipe  -  The manufacturing process for wrought steel pipe works raw steel into tubes of various lengths and diameters.  Steel pipes play a role in the underground moving of water and gas, encasing electrical wires for protection, and the production of vehicles, bicycles, plumbing and heating systems, street lamps and refrigeration units.
    • Non-ferrous Pipe  -  Non-ferrous metals do not contain iron.
      • Aluminum Alloy Pipe  -  Aluminum and its alloys are essential to the aerospace industry and are significant in the automotive and building sectors, such as façade design and window frames.  The base material is specially formulated to resist the effects of corrosion and abrasion.  Corrosion resistance is further improved by cladding each surface with a higher grade aluminum alloy. 
      • Copper Alloy Pipe  -   It’s strong, durable and naturally protected against rust.  And since copper is recyclable, it’s an environmentally friendly solution for these and other applications.  Copper tubes are utilized in a variety of applications such as plumbing, heating, air conditioning, and refrigerant, and also used in the production of a variety of industrial items, including heat exchangers, oil coolers, and condensers. 
      • Nickel Alloy Pipe  -  Nickel is a highly versatile element with significant beneficial qualities.  When alloyed with other elements, nickel maintains numerous applications throughout various industries.  Some of the significant beneficial qualities that nickel alloy materials displays include low expansion, high strength, electrical resistance, corrosion resistance, and heat resistance.
  • Non-metal Pipe  -  These pipes include various common plastic pipes, composite pipes, concrete pipes, rubber pipes, glass steel pipes, etc.
    • ABS Pipe  -  ABS (Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene), is a black plastic pipe that is commonly used for drainage, sewage, and vents.  It is also often used in DWV systems (drain-waste-vent), which are designed to remove wastewater from a home or business.
    • Asbestos Cement Pipe  -  Asbestos cement pipe is a special type of pipe that uses asbestos to provide improved mechanical properties to traditional cement pipe.  Plain cement pipe often lacks tensile strength.  The added asbestos fibers provide cement pipe with improved tensile strength.
    • Concrete Pipe  -  Concrete pipe is a rigid pipe having very good strength and high longevity.  Concrete pipes are being used for a long time mainly in the water and wastewater industries. 
      • PCCP Pipe  -  PCCP (Pressurized Concrete Cylinder Pipe) have a structural, high-strength concrete core, a steel cylinder with steel joint rings welded at each end providing water-tightness, steel prestressing wire, and a portland cement-rich mortar coating.
      • PTCCP Pipe  -  PTCCP (Pretensioned Concrete Cylinder Pipe) also called bar-wrapped concrete cylinder pipes.  The interior of the pipe is provided with centrifugally applied mortar or concrete lining.  Around the outside of the cylinder, a steel bar is helically wound tightly and securely welded to the steel joint rings.  Next, a cement rich dense mortar coating is applied to the cylinder and bar wrap.  These types of concrete pipes are used in cooling water system pipelines, distribution pipelines, open-cut tunnels, sanitary main and trunk gravity lines, wastewater intake lines, etc.
      • RCP Pipe  -  RCP (Reinforced Concrete Pipe) used in roadway and site development for transferring a large volume of liquid.
      • RCNP Pipe  -  RCNP (Reinforced Concrete Non-cylinder Pipe) These pipes are widely found in tunnel applications, wastewater treatment plants, irrigation industries, combined sewer overflow, underground detention tanks, etc.
    • Vitrified Clay Pipe  -  This pipe is made from a blend of clay and shale that has been subjected to high temperature to achieve vitrification, which results in a hard, inert ceramic.
    • CPVC Pipe  -  CPVC (Chlorinated Polyvinyl Chloride) as PVC are similar in many ways, but they shouldn't be used interchangeably.  Both are made of the same basic elements with one distinguishing factor.  CPVC is altered by a free radical chlorination reaction that effectively increases the chlorine content of the material.  CPVC is also a thermoplastic that is molded into many of the same products as PVC.
    • FRP Pipe  -  FRP (Fiber Reinforced Plastic) is a composite material consisting of a polymer matrix reinforced with fibers.  This pipe is used in trenchless installation of pipelines because it is lightweight, temperature resistant, strong, and highly resistant to chemicals and corrosion.
    • Glass Pipe  -  Glass pipes are utilized to withstand chemical reactions, cleanliness, and transparency.  In the chemical and pharmaceutical industries, they are widely used.  The glass pipe’s extremely smooth surface aids in keeping systems clean.  In the case of abrasive fluid mediums, the hardness of the glass offers protection.
    • GRE Pipe  -  GRE (Glass Reinforced Epoxy) main difference from GRP is the resin used to bond the glass fibers.  The pipe is used in industrial applications because it can withstand higher temperatures compared to GRP.
    • GRP Pipe  -  GRP (Glass Reinforced Plastic) is a composite material pipe consisting of a polymer matrix that is reinforced with glass fibres.  They have very high corrosion resistance ability and are thus used widely for low temperature corrosion resistant applications.
    • HDPE Pipe  -  HDPE (High-density Polyethylene) is used in drainage systems and constructions because of its strong temperature resistance.
    • LDPE Pipe  -  LDPE (Low-density Polyethylene) is mostly utilized in the sprinkler and drips irrigation systems, laboratories, and industrial process components.
    • PE Pipe  -  PE (Polyethylene) is a thermoplastic material produced from the polymerization of ethylene.  Polyethylene can be used in low temperatures without risk of brittle failure.  Thus, a major application for certain PE piping formulations is for low-temperature heat transfer applications such as radiant floor heating, snow melting, ice rinks, and geothermal ground source heat pump piping.
    • PVC Pipe  -  PVC (Polyvinyl Chloride) is a white or light colored plastic pipe that is most commonly used for plumbing and drainage.  Like ABS, it is often used in DWV (drain-waste-vent) or sewerage systems to remove waste from a home or business.  It has a smooth surface, good elasticity, and is non-toxic.  Certain PVC grades are employed in service lines for chemical and food processing.
  • Lined/Cladded Pipe  - 
    • Cement Lined Pipe  -  The lining can be applied either after the pipes have been installed or in a stackyard adjacent to the project prior to installation.  These linings are ideal for potable water, or specialist chemically resistant mortars for wastewater projects which are subject to hydrogen sulphide attack.  Cement mortar lining adds pipe stiffness to resist external loads and deflection.
    • FRP Lined Pipe  -  This pipe material is used in various industrial product applications including the handling of materials in a corrosive environment and also the transfer of corrosive products and materials.  However, the fastest growing application of FRP systems is for industrial equipment.  The application ranges from handling of combustible and flammable liquids at retail facilities to water and sewer mains in the industrial and municipal markets.
    • Glass Lined Pipe  -  Glass piping systems are a special type of piping system mainly used for food processing, laboratory service, and some other industrial applications. Glass piping is specifically preferred because of its cleanliness, transparency, durability, and good chemical resistance. However, glass pipes being of special nature, require special consideration of supports and attachments. In this article, we will briefly discuss some salient points of glass piping in general.
    • PTFE Lined Pipe  -  PTFE is one of the most versatile materials used for lined pipe and fittings.  It is chemically resistant and capable of withstanding high temperatures, making it ideal for handling nitric acid, oleum, nitrobenzene and other fluids used in industrial and manufacturing processes.
    • Rubber Lined Pipe  -  Rubber Lined Pipe is utilized across numerous industries and is a cost effective method to transport abrasive slurries, corrosive chemicals and many other liquids from one area to another.  Rubber linings are mainly used for protection against corrosion and erosion damage.

 

pipe design Process

There are many methods of making carbon steel pipe, but the two basic methods result in seamless pipe or welded pipe.  There are several different processes for joining the pipe seams together, such as Electric Resistance Weld (ERW), Electric Fusion Weld (EFW) or furnace butt-weld.  Though it should be noted that the most common processes are ERW and EFW.

  • Standard pipe (seamless and welded) is used for air, gas, steam, and water lines for threading or welding and suitable for flanging or bending fall.  Carbon Steel Pipe is ordered under the specification ASTM A53.
  • Standard pipe (seamless only) is used for high temperatures and is suitable for flanging or bending.  Carbon Steel Pipe is ordered under the specification ASTM A106.
  • Line service pipe (seamless and welded) is used for transporting gas, oil, petroleum, and water.  Carbon Steel Pipe is ordered under the specification API Spec 5L.

Carbon steel pipe can be triple stamped so that it meets the criteria of ASTM A53, ASTM A106, or API 5L.  Each of these specifications requires that the pipe be marked with the spec that it is manufactured to.  The pipe will also specify the grade (e.g. Grade A, Grade B), which determines the specific metallurgy of the carbon steel pipe.

Even though both of the processes below can vary, the result is the same - "pipe."

Seamless Pipe  -  Seamless pipe is extruded into a solid steel tube (billet).  The billet is heated to the proper temperature to be pierced.  It is then cut to a length and pulled as it advances over the piercing tool, which forms a continuous hole.  This process happens again to reach the proper size desired.  Before going further, the pierced billet is reheated.

In the next operation, the pierced billet is rolled over a plug that reduces the diameter and wall thickness and increases the length of the billet.  Small sizes go to the next step.  For large sizes, the previous process is repeated.  The next step is the same for all sizes - the pipe is advanced over a mandrel, where both the inside and outside of the pipe are brushed and cleaned.

Reheating is needed again to obtain an even temperature.  It is passed through a series of rollers to give it the exact size and roundness, then placed on a conveyor belt where it begins to cool and straighten.  The final steps are facing and beveling, followed by inspection.  If it is rejected during inspection, it may become structural grade pipe or line service pipe.  If it passes inspection then goes to loading and shipping.

Welded Pipe  -  Welded pipe comes in coils from storage to the mill.  The coil is flattened and electrically welded together to form a continuous sheet.  Once the proper circumference has been reached, the process of forming the sheet to a round and continuous edge begins.  Next the high frequency welder heats the edge then pressure squeezes the heated edges together to form the weld.  The weld is inspected for any defects that may have occurred.

After the seam has been worked, it is cooled to the temperature required before sizing the pipe.  Once the pipe has passed through rollers that give the proper outside diameter and strength it is cut to a specific length.  Next, it is hydrostatic tested and put through straightening rollers.  The final step is facing and beveling.  If it passes inspection then it goes to loading and shipping.  If it is rejected during inspection, it may then become structural grade pipe or line service pipe.

Rejected Pipe  -  At the time of manufacturing, mills will reject pipe that cannot be graded as a prime product because of physical or chemical imperfections.  Pipe that passes inspection is sold to distributors and manufacturers.  The pipe that did not make the cut is sold with no warranty - you buy as is.  Rejected pipe, also known as structural grade pipe or line service pipe, can still be used in some cases if manufactured to ASTM or API standards.  The rejected pipe comes in all types, sizes, and materials and can still be used for purposes other than prime pipe: fencing, casing, posts, supports, etc.

 

Pipe Datasheets

Pipe TypeDatasheets
Pipe Pipe & Tubing
Pipe Pipe Layout
Pipe Pipe Spacing
Pipe Pipe Materials Specifications

 

Pipe standards

API Standards

  • API 5L - Specification for CRA Clad or Lined Pipe
  • API 15LE - PE Line Pipe
  • API 15LR - Low Pressure Fiberglass Line Pipe
  • API 1104 - Welded Pipelines and Related Facilities

ASME Standards

  • ASME B31.1 - Power Piping
  • ASME B31.3 - Process Piping
  • ASME B41.4 - Pipeline Transportation Systems for Liquids and Slurries
  • ASME B31.8 - Gas Transmission and Distribution Piping Systems
  • ASME B36.10M - Welded and Seamless Wrought Steel Pipe
  • ASME B36.19M - Stainless Steel Pipe

ASTM Standards

  • ASTM A53 - Specification for Pipe, Steel, Black and Hot-Dipped, Zinc-Coated, Welded and Seamless
  • ASTM A74 - Standard Specification for Cast Iron Soil Pipe and Fittings
  • ASTM A106 - Specification for Seamless Carbon Steel Pipe for High Temperature Service
  • ASTM A333 - Specification for Seamless and Welded Steel Pipe for Low Temperature Service
  • ASTM A716 - Standard Specification for Ductile Iron Culvert Pipe
  • ASTM A733 - Standard Specification for Welded and Seamless Carbon Steel and Austenitic Stainless Steel Pipe Nipples
  • ASTM A746 - Standard Specification for Ductile Iron Gravity Sewer Pipe
  • ASTM A1053 - Standard Specification for Welded Ferritic-Martensitic Stainless Steel Pipe
  • ASTM C361 - Reinforced Concrete Low-Head Pressure Pipe
  • ASTM D1527 - Standard Specification for Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene (ABS) Plastic Pipe, Schedules 40 and 80
  • ASTM D1784 - Specification for Rigid Poly(Vinyl Chloride) (PVC) Compounds and Chlorinated Poly(Vinyl Chloride) (CPVC) Compounds
  • ASTM D1785 - Standard Specification for Poly(Vinyl Chloride) (PVC) Plastic Pipe, Schedules 40, 80, and 120
  • ASTM D2104 - Standard Specification for Polyethylene (PE) Plastic Pipe, Schedule 40
  • ASTM D2241 - Standard Specification for Poly(Vinyl Chloride) (PVC) Pressure-Rated Pipe (SDR Series)
  • ASTM D2513 - Standard Specification for Polyethylene (PE) Gas Pressure Pipe, Tubing, and Fittings
  • ASTM D2683 - Standard Specification for Socket-Type Polyethylene Fittings for Outside Diameter-Controlled Polyethylene Pipe and Tubing
  • ASTM D3261 - Standard Specification for Butt Heat Fusion Polyethylene (PE) Plastic Fittings for Polyethylene (PE) Plastic Pipe and Tubing
  • ASTM D3350 - Standard Specification for Polyethylene Plastics Pipe and Fittings Materials
  • ASTM E213 - Standard Practice for Ultrasonic Testing of Metal Pipe and Tubing
  • ASTM E273 - Standard Practice for Ultrasonic Testing of the Weld Zone of Welded Pipe and Tubing
  • ASTM F423 - PTFE Plastic-Lined Ferrous Metal Pipe and Fittings
  • ASTM F437 - Threaded CPVC Plastic Pipe Fittings, Sch 80
  • ASTM F438 - Socket-Type CPVC Plastic Pipe Fittings, Sch 40
  • ASTM F439 - CPVC Plastic Pipe Fittings, Schedule 80
  • ASTM F714 - Standard Specification for Polyethylene (PE) Plastic Pipe (DR-PR) Based on Outside Diameter
  • ASTM F441 / F441M - Standard Specification for Chlorinated Poly(Vinyl Chloride) (CPVC) Plastic Pipe, Schedules 40 and 80
  • ASTM F512 - Standard Specification for Smooth-Wall Poly(Vinyl Chloride) (PVC) Conduit and Fittings for Underground Installation
  • ASTM F714 - Standard Specification for Polyethylene (PE) Plastic Pipe (DR-PR) Based on Outside Diameter
  • ASTM F2206 - Standard Specification for Fabricated Fittings of Butt-Fused Polyethylene (PE)

AWWA Standards

  • AWWA C105 -
  • AWWA C115 - Standard for Flanged Ductile Iron Pipe with Ductile-Iron or Gray-Iron Threaded Flanges
  • AWWA C207 - Steel Pipe Flanges for Waterworks Service, Sizes 4 in. through 144 in.
  • AWWA C209 - Tape Coatings for Steel Water Pipe and Fittings
  • AWWA C215 - Extruded Polyolefin Coatings for Steel Pipe
  • AWWA C222 - Polyurethane Coatings and Linings for Steel Water Pipe and Fittings
  • AWWA C225 - Fused Polyolefin Coatings for Steel Water Line
  • AWWA C229 - Fusion-Bonded Polyethylene Coatings for Steel Water Pipe
  • AWWA C300 - Reinforced Concrete Pressure Pipe, Steel Cylinder Type, for Water and Other Liquids
  • AWWA C301 - Prestressed Concrete Pressure Pipe, Steel Cylinder Type, for Water and Other Liquids
  • AWWA C302 - Reinforced Concrete Pressure Pipe, Noncylinder Type
  • AWWA C304 - Design of Prestressed Concrete Cylinder Pipe
  • AWWA C621 - Internal Pipe Joint Seal Assemblies for Water Service
  • AWWA C622 - Pipe Bursting of Porable water Mains 4 in. to 36 in.
  • AWWA C900 - Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) Pressure Pipe and Fabricated Fittings, 4 In. Through 12 In. (100 mm Through 300 mm), for Water Transmission and Distribution
  • AWWA C901 - Polyethylene (PE) Pressure Pipe and Tubing, 3.4 in. through 3 in
  • AWWA C906 - Polyethylene (PE) Pressure Pipe and Fittings 4 In. (100 mm) Through 63 In. (1,600 mm) for Water Distribution and Transmission
  • AWWA C950 - Standard for Fiberglass Pressure Pipe
  • AWWA M11 - Steel Pipe - A Guide for Design and Installation
  • AWWA M23 - PVC Pipe - Design and Installation
  • AWWA M55 - PE Pipe - Design and Installation
  • AWWA M75 - Elastomers for Waterworks: Pipes, Valves, and Fittings

 

Pipe End Abbreviations

  • Bevel End (BE)
  • Bevel Both Ends (BBE)
  • Bevel Large End (BLE)
  • Bevel One End (BOE)
  • Bevel Small End (BSE)
  • Bevel for Welding (BFW)
  • Bevel x Plain (BXP)
  • Bevel x Threaded (BXT)
  • Buttweld (BW)
  • Buttweld End (BE)
  • End of Pipe (EOP)
  • Female Threaded (FT)
  • Female x Male (FXM)
  • Flange One End (FOE)
  • Male Threaded (MT)
  • Male x Female (MXF)
  • Plain End (PE)
  • Plain Both Ends (PBE)
  • Plain One End (POE)
  • Plain x Bevel (PXB)
  • Socket Weld (SW)
  • Socket Weld Both Ends (SWBE)
  • Socket Weld Outlet (SWOL)
  • Threaded (THD)
  • Threaded Both Ends (TBE)
  • Threaded End (TE)
  • Threaded Large End (TLE)
  • Threaded One End (TOE)
  • Threaded Outlet (TOL)
  • Threaded Small End (TSE)
  • Threaded x Bevel (TXB)
  • Threaded x Socket Weld (TXS)
  • Threads Only (TO)
  • Threads per Inch (TPI)

    

Pipe Material Abbreviations

  • Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene Pipe (ABS)
  • Acrylate Styrene Acrylonitrile Pipe (ASA)
  • Aluminum Pipe (ALP)
  • Asbestos Cement Pipe (ACP)
  • Brass Pipe (BRP)
  • Carbon Steel Pipe (CS)
  • Cast Iron Pipe (CIP)
  • Cast Iron Soil Pipe (CISP)
  • Cement Pipe (CMTP)
  • Cement Lined Metal Pipe (CLMP)
  • Cement Mortar Lined Pipe (CMLP)
  • Chlorinated Polyvinyl Chloride Pipe (CPVC)
  • Chromed Brass Pipe (CBP)
  • Chromed Copper Pipe (CCP)
  • Concrete Pipe (CONCP)
  • Copper Pipe (CUP)
  • Copper Tubing (CUT)
  • Corrugated Metal Pipe (CMP)
  • Corrugated Plastic Pipe (CPP)
  • Cross-linked Polyethylene (PEX)
  • Ductile Iron Pipe (DIP)
  • Electric Resistance Weld Pipe (ERW)
  • Fiberglass Reinforced Pipe (FRP)
  • Fiberglass Reinforced Plastics Pipe (FRPP)
  • Galvanized Iron Pipe (GIP)
  • Galvanized Steel Pipe (GSP)
  • High Carbon Steel Pipe (HCS)
  • High Density Polyethylene Pipe (HDPE)
  • High Impact Polystyrene Pipe (HIPS)
  • Lead Pipe (PBP)
  • Low Density Polyethylene Pipe (LDPE)
  • Medium Density Polyethylene Pipe (MDPE)
  • Polyvinyl Chloride Pipe (PVC)
  • Prestressed Concrete Cylinder Pipe (PCCP)
  • Reinforced Concrete Pipe (RCP)
  • Reinforced Fiberglass Pipe (RFP)
  • Stainless Steel Pipe (SSP)
  • Unplasticised Polyvinyl Chloride (UPVC)
  • Vertrified Clay Pipe (VCP)
  • Vertrified Clay Tile (VCT)
  • Wrought Iron Pipe (WIP)

 

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API 14E Pipe Sizing Calculator
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