Fitting is a piping component that is used to join piping, change the direction or diameter of piping or end the pipe. They are a versatile piping component which are necessary in modern piping system.
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Nomenclature & Symbols
Pipe Fitting Types
Pipe fittings can be broken down into several categories:
- Branch Connection - Branch connections are used when two or more pipes come together. These can be in the form of a complete fitting, such as a tee or cross. They can also be in the form of an O’let which is a branch connection that is designed to attach directly to the pipe. Branch connections are available in buttweld, socket weld, threaded and flanged.
- Cap - Weld caps are used to seal the end of the piping. It might be used when old pipe is being abandoned or with a tee to form a hydraulic elbow. Caps are available in buttweld only.
- Coupling - Couplings are used to join two different threaded pieces of pipe. When a coupling is used, it is important not to over torque the piping, otherwise damage to the coupling or union can occur. Couplings are available for threaded pipe only.
- Elbow - These are useful when needing to change direction of flow. Typical elbow directions are 45, 90 and 180 degrees. Elbows are available in buttweld, socket weld, threaded and flanged.
- Reducer - Reducers are used when the pipe needs to change diameter. Reducers are available in buttweld, socket weld, threaded and flanged.
Pipe Fitting End Connection Types
There are four different type of connections that are used for fittings:
- Buttweld Fitting - Probably the most common type of fitting. They are easily manufactured and are easily installed. Butt weld fittings can be connected directly to each other. This is called fitting make up.
- Flanged Fitting - Flanged fittings are piping components where the flange is an integral component of the fitting. These are most often used in water treatment applications or lined piping where welding would be destructive to the liner.
- Socket Weld Fitting - These fittings have a socket weld connection on each end. They might be used for smaller diameter piping. These fittings utilize a single fillet weld to join the piping with the fitting.
- Threaded Fitting - Threaded fittings are generally four inches and smaller. The reason for this size constraint is the pipe end needs to be threaded with a male type connection and die sizes are unobtainable in the larger diameters.
Pipe Fitting Datasheets
|Pipe Fitting Type||Datasheets|
|Fittings||All Fittings, ANSI (in)|
|Buttweld||Buttweld Fitting, ANSI (in)|
|Ductile Iron Flange||Ductile Iron Flange Fitting, ANSI (in)|
|Flex Connector||Flex Connector Fitting, ANSI (in)|
|O'let||O'let Fitting, ANSI (in)|
|PVC||PVC Fitting, ANSI (in)|
|Socket||Socket Fitting, ANSI (in)|
|Threaded||Threaded Fitting, ANSI (in)|
Pipe Fitting Standards
- API 671 - Special Purpose Couplings for Pumps - Reciprocation
- ASME B16.1 - Cast Iron Pipe Flanges and Flanged Fittings
- ASME B16.3 - Malleable Iron Threaded Fittings
- ASME B16.4 - Gray Iron Threaded Fittings
- ASME B16.9 - Factory-Made Wrought Buttwelding Fittings
- ASME B16.11 - Forged Fittings, Socket-Welding and Threaded
- ASME B16.14 - Ferrous Pipe Plugs, Bushings, and Lock nuts With Pipe Threads
- ASME B16.15 - Cast Bronze Threaded Fittings, Class125 and 250
- ASME B16.18 - Cast Copper Alloy Solder Joint Pressure Fittings
- ASME B16.22 - Wrought Copper and Copper Alloy Solder Joint Pressure Fittings
- ASME B16.24 - Cast Copper Alloy Pipe Flanges and Flanged Fittings: Classes 150, 300, 600, 900, 1500, and 2500
- ASME B16.25 - Buttwelding Ends
- ASME B16.26 - Cast Copper Alloy Fittings for Flared Copper Tubes
- ASME B16.39 - MalleableIron Threaded Pipe Unions, Class 150, 250, and 300
- ASME B16.42 - Ductile Iron Pipe Flanges and Flanged Fittings: Classes 150 and 300
- ASTM A105 - Specification for Carbon Steel Forgings for Piping Applications
- ASTM A181 - Specification for Carbon Steel Forgings, for General-Purpose Piping
- ASTM A182 - Specification for Forged or Rolled Alloy and Stainless Steel Pipe Flanges, Forged Fittings, and Valves and Parts for High-Temperature Service
- ASTM A193 - Specification for Alloy Steel and Stainless Steel Bolting Materials for High Temperature Service
- ASTM A194 - Specification for Carbon and Alloy Steel Nuts for Bolts for High Pressure and High Temperature Service
- ASTM A234 - Specification for Piping Fittings of Wrought Carbon Steel and Alloy Steel for Moderate and High Temperature Service
- ASTM A350 - Specification for Carbon and Low-Alloy Steel Forgings, Requiring Notch Toughness Testing for Piping Components
- ASTM A403 - Specification for Wrought Austenitic Stainless Steel Piping Fittings
- ASTM A420 - Standard Specification for Piping Fittings of Wrought Carbon Steel and Alloy Steel for Low-Temperature Service
- ASTM A694 - Specification for Carbon and Alloy Steel Forgings for Pipe Flanges, Fittings, Valves, and Parts for High-Pressure Transmission Service
- ASTM B21 - Specification for Naval Brass Rod, Bar, and Shapes
- ASTM B98 - Specification for Copper-Silicon Alloy Rod, Bar and Shapes
- ASTM B150 - Specification for Aluminum Bronze Rod, Bar, and Shapes
- ASTM B160 - Specification for Nickel Rod and Bar
- ASTM B164 - Specification for Nickel-Copper Alloy Rod, Bar, and Wire
- ASTM B166 - Specification for Nickel-Chromium-Iron Alloys (UNS N06600, N06601, N06603, N06690, N06693, N06025, and N06045) and Nickel-Chromium-Cobalt-Molybdenum Alloy (UNS N06617) Rod, Bar, and Wire
- ASTM B247 - Specification for Aluminum and Aluminum-Alloy Die Forgings, Hand Forgings, and Rolled Ring Forgings
- ASTM B361 - Specification for Factory-Made Wrought Aluminum and Aluminum-Alloy Welding Fittings
- ASTM B366 - Specification for Factory-Made Wrought Nickel and Nickel Alloy Fittings
- ASTM B381 - Specification for Titanium and Titanium Alloy Forgings
- ASTM B462 - Specification for Forged or Rolled UNS N06030, UNS N06022, UNS N06035, UNS N06200, UNS N06059, UNS N06686, UNS N08020, UNS N08024, UNS N08026, UNS N08367, UNS N10276, UNS N10665, UNS N10675, UNS N10629, UNS N08031, UNS *N06045, UNS N06025, and UNS R20033 Al
- ASTM B564 - Specification for Nickel Alloy Forgings
- AWWA C110 - Ductile-Iron and Gray-Iron Fittings, 3 Inch Through 48 Inch (75 mm Through 1200 mm), for Water and Other Liquids
- AWWA C208 - Dimensions for Fabricated Steel Water Pipe Fittings
- ISO 5251 - Stainless steel butt-welding fittings
- ISO 5256 - Steel pipes and fittings for buried or submerged pipe lines -- External and internal coating by bitumen or coal tar derived materials
- MSS SP-43 - Wrought Stainless Steel Butt-Welding Fittings Including Reference to Other Corrosion Resistant Materials
- MSS SP-53 - Quality Standards for Steel Castings and Forgings for Valves, Flanges and Fittings and Other Piping Components - Magnetic Particle
- MSS SP-54 - Quality Standards for Steel Castings and for Valves, Flanges and Fittings and Other Piping Components - Radiographic
- MSS SP-55 - Quality Standards for Steel Castings and for Valves, Flanges and Fittings and Other Piping Components - Visual
- MSS SP-75 - Specifications for High Test Wrought Buttwelding Fittings
- MSS SP-73 - Brazing Joints for Copper and Copper Alloy Pressure Fittings
- MSS SP-83 - Class 3000 Steel Pipe Unions, Socket-Welding and Threaded
- MSS SP-97 - Integrally Reinforced Forged Branch Outlet Fittings — Socket Welding, Threaded, and Buttwelding Ends
- MSS SP-106 - Cast Copper Alloy Flanges and Flanged Fittings Class 125,150, and 300
- MSS SP-119 - Factory-Made Wrought Belled End Socket Welding Fittings
- SAE J514 - HydraulicTubeFittings
Pipe Fitting Specification, BSI
BS 3799 - Steel Pipe Fittings, Socket and Threaded
Note - Class designations correspond to the maximum cold working pressure of fittings in pounds force per square inch.
Pipe Fitting Glossary
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- Barred Tee - A tee or any fitting with a branch used in pipelines that is pigged and has a restriction bar welded internally preventing the pig from traveling down a branch connection.
- Belled End Pipe Fittings - Used instead of buttwelded fittings. They are a lot faster to install because there is no nead to bevel the connecting pipe and because making up the weld is a lot faster.
- Bleed Ring - A ring section with one or more radial pipe connections designed to fit between standard flanges within the bolt circle, using conventional gasket material.
- Branch Connection Fitting - Not just tee's and lateral's, they are also weldolets.
- Buttweld Fitting - Can be split up into different categories depending on what it's function is.
- Corrosion - The thinning of a pipe wall that is typically caused by a chemical reaction from a corroding fluid or agent and is limited almost exclusively to metal products.
- Expansion Joint - Heat and cold causes piping systems to expand and contract. This expansion and contraction can put enormous stresses on the pipe causing it to buckle or fail.
- Fitting Specification, ASME - The following is based on ASME B16.11 - Forged Fittings, Socket-Welding and Threaded.
- Flange - A bolted connection where two pieces of pipe, equipment, fittings or valves are connected together to form a piping system.
- Flex Connector - Used primarily to take the stress off pumps and motors when noise absorption, vibration, or thermal growth may happen.
- Flow Rate - The amount of fluid that flows in a given time past a specific point.
- Friction - The mechanical resistance to the relative movement of two surfaces.
- Impact Tee - Takes steam flow through the branch connection of a normal tee.
- Nipple - Nipples join unions, valves, strainers, fittings, etc.
- Pipe - A hollow tube that can carry products such as fluid, gas, granular and more.
- Pipe End - There are three main types of pipe ends: beveled, threaded or plain.
- Piping One-line Drawing - A piping single line drawing is a piping drawing that shows the size and location of pipes, fittings and valves.
- Pressure - It is the force exerted perpendicular to the surface of an object and is expressed as force per unit area.
- Pressure Differential - The pressure difference between two points of a system.
- Pressure Loss - The difference in upstream and downstream pressure.
- Split Tee - It is a pipeline fitting designed such that the inner diameter of the fitting is the same size as the outside diameter of the pipe that will be hot tapped.
- Stress - The force per unit area of cross-section.
- Tension Strength - The capacity of a material to resist a force tending to stretch it.
- Threaded Fitting - Generally four inches and smaller. The reason for this size constraint is the pipe end needs to be threaded with a male type connection and die sizes are unobtainable in the larger diameters.
- Thrust Block - An obstacle for the pressure against a change in direction of a pipe by a elbow, etc.
- Torque - The rotational force used to move a shart.
- Volumetric Flow Rate - The amount of fluid that flows in a given time past a specific point.
- Welding - The fabrication process that fuses like materials togeather by heating them to a suitable temperatures, this can be acomplished by brazing, soldering or welding.
- Working Pressure - The normal pressure that a system operates at.
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