# Force

Force, abbreviated as F, is the push or pull of an object resulting in a change from rest or motion. So when you apply force to an object the velocity changes, the change in velocity is acceleration. Force is a vector quantity having magnitude and direction, some of these include acceleration, displacement, drag, lift, momentum, thrust, torque, velocity, and weight.

## Force Calculator

## Force formulas

\(\large{ F = m \; a }\) | |

\(\large{ F = \frac {\Delta p}{\Delta t} }\) | |

\(\large{ F = \frac {I}{\Delta t} }\) | (impulse) |

\(\large{ F = \frac{M}{l} }\) | (moment) |

\(\large{ F = \frac{P}{v} }\) | (power) |

\(\large{ F = \frac{P \; t}{d} }\) | (power) |

\(\large{ F = p \; A }\) | (pressure) |

\(\large{ F = -k_s \; \left( x - x_0 \right) }\) | (spring constant) |

\(\large{ F = \sigma \; A_c }\) | (stress) (yield strength) |

\(\large{ F = \frac {\tau}{l} }\) | (torque) |

\(\large{ F = \frac {\tau}{d} }\) | (torque) |

\(\large{ F = \frac{W}{d} }\) | (work) |

### Where:

\(\large{ F }\) = force

\(\large{ a }\) = acceleration

\(\large{ A }\) = area

\(\large{ A_c }\) = area cross-section

\(\large{ d }\) = displacement

\(\large{ x }\) = distance from equilibrium

\(\large{ I }\) = impulse

\(\large{ l }\) = length, moment arm

\(\large{ m }\) = mass

\(\large{ M }\) = moment

\(\large{ \Delta p }\) = momentum differential

\(\large{ P }\) = power

\(\large{ p }\) = pressure

\(\large{ k_s }\) = spring constant

\(\large{ x_0 }\) = spring equilibrium position

\(\large{ \sigma }\) (Greek symbol sigma) = stress

\(\large{ t }\) = time

\(\large{ \Delta t }\) = time differential

\(\large{ \tau }\) (Greek symbol tau) = torque

\(\large{ v }\) = velocity

\(\large{ W }\) = work

\(\large{ \sigma }\) (Greek symbol sigma) = yield strength

## General Three-dimensional Force

All other combinations of nonconcurrent, nonparallel and noncoplanar forces.

## Force types

All forces can be divided into two basic types of forces:

- Contact force
- Air resistance force
- Applied force
- Friction force
- Normal force
- Spring force
- Tension force

- Non-contact force
- Gravity force
- Electric force
- Magnetic force

## Air Resistance Force

Air resistance force, abbreviated as \(F_{ar}\), is the force in opposition to a moving object through the air.

## Applied Force

Applied force, abbreviated as \(F_a\), can come from different types of forces, one of them could be Newton's Second Law. There really is no one formula.

## Centrifugal force

Centrifugal force is when a force pushes away from the center of a circle, but this does not really exist. When an object travels in a circle, the object always wants to go straight, but the centripetal force keeps the object traveling along an axis of rotation.

## Centripetal force

The direction of the centripetal force is always toward the center of the circle and perpendicular to the velocity. Any combination of forces causing a uniform circular motion can be called centripetal force.

## Collinear Force

Collinear forces all share the same line of action.

## Concurrent Force

Concurrent forces are all acting at the same point.

## Coplannar Parallel Force

Coplannar parallel forces can be in the same or opposite direction and are on the same plane.

## Electric Force

An electric force, abbreviated as \(F_e\), is an attraction or repulsion force between any two charged objects.

## Friction Force

Friction force, abbreviated as \(F_f\), is the force an object exerts on the surface of an object as it slides across.

## Gravity Force

Gravity force is the force exerted between two masses.

## Magnetic Force

A magnetic force, abbreviated as \(F_m\), is an attraction or repulsion force between electrically charged particles moving in a magnetic field.

## Non Coplannar Force

All non coplannar forces lines of action lie on different planes.

## Non Coplannar Concurrent Force

All non coplannar concurrent forces act at the same point but their lines of action lie on different planes.

## Non Coplannar Non Concurrent Force

All non coplannar non concurrent forces do not meet and their lines do not lie on the same plane.

## Normal Force

Normal force, abbreviated as \(F_n\), is the supported force between two contacting objects.

## Spring Force

Spring force, abbreviated as \(F_s\), is the force that compresses (a repulsive force) or stretches (an attractive force) the spring.

## Tension Force

Tension force, abbreviated as \(F_t\), is the force that is exerted through a rope, string or wire when pulled from opposite directions.

Tags: Equations for Force