In physics and mathematics, scalar is a quantity that is described by its magnitude or size and is independent of any specific direction. Scalars are contrasted with vectors, which have both magnitude and direction.
Scalar quantities are characterized by their ability to be added or subtracted using simple arithmetic operations and can be multiplied or divided by other scalars to produce new scalar values. Scalar quantities do not have associated coordinate systems or orientations, and they can be represented by a single number on a number line or as a real number in algebraic expressions.
Here is a list of common scalar quantities: amount of substance, area, density, electric charge, electric potential energy, electric resistance, energy, entropy, frequency, kinetic energy, length, mass, potential difference, power, pressure, speed, time, temperature, volume, and work.