## Materials

Material, abbreviated as MATL, is the matter an object is made of.  There are four categories of material: ceramic, composite, metal and polymer.

• Ceramic - inorganic non-metallic solid comprised of either metal or non-metal compounds made by heating together these materials.
• Composite - material mixture of two or more materials with different properties combined to produce a new material.
• Metal - chemical elements that are good conductors of heat and electricity.
• Polymer - a long chain of molecules linked together.

### Science Branches

Science
Applied Science
Engineering
Chemical Engineering
Corrosion Engineering

### Nomenclature & Symbols

• $$E$$  -  elasticity
• $$MATL$$  -  material
• $$ML$$  -  material list

## Materials Glossary

### A

• Annealing  -  A method of heat treating used to relieve stress and increase softening.

### C

• Capacitance  -  The ability to hold an electric charge.
• Capacitor  -  Behaves as a charge storage device.  Holds an electric charge when voltage is applied across it and gives up the stored charge when required.
• Cleanroom  -  A room/facility in which the air supply, air distribution, filtration of air supply, materials of construction, and operating procedures are regulated to control airborne particle concentrations to meet approperate cleanliness levels.
• Composite material  -  A combination of two materials with different chemical and physical properties.
• Conductor  -  A material through which heat passes and allows the free flow of electric charge.

### E

• Elasticity  -  Measures the stiffness of an elastic material.  Elasticity can deformed body and return to its original shape when the forces exerted are removed.
• Elastic limits  -  Maximum stress that can be applied to a metal without causing plastic deformation that will remain after the load is relaxed to zero.
• Electrode  -  An electrical conductor used to contact a nonmetallic part of a circuit.
• Electron  -  A subatomic particle found in all atoms, electrons carry electricity by flowing from one atom to the next in a conductive material.

### H

• Hardness  -  The property of a material that enables it to resist plastic deformation, usually by penetration.  However, the term hardness may also refer to resistance to bending, scratching, abrasion or cutting.

### K

• Kerf loss  -  The amount of material loss during a cutting process.

### M

• Mask  -  A patterned layer of material used to prevent the etching of the material directly beneath it.

### S

• Shear stress  - Tends to deform the material by breaking rather than stretching without changing the volume by restraining the object.
• Stiffness  -  The resistance of the elastic deformation of an object that applies to both compression and tension.

### T

• Tensile strength  -  The maximum stress a material can resist before it starts to elongate.
• Thermal conductivity  -  The ability to transfer heat within a material without any motion of the material.
• Thermal expansion coefficient  -  The percentage change in the length of the material per degree of temperature change, heated solid or liquid.

### Y

• Yield strength  -  The minimum stress that leads to permanent deformation of the material.

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