Materials

materials banner 4Material, abbreviated as MATL, is the matter an object is made of.  There are four categories of material: ceramic, composite, metal and polymer.

  • Ceramic - inorganic non-metallic solid comprised of either metal or non-metal compounds made by heating together these materials.
  • Composite - material mixture of two or more materials with different properties combined to produce a new material.
  • Metal - chemical elements that are good conductors of heat and electricity.
  • Polymer - a long chain of molecules linked together.

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Nomenclature & Symbols

 

  • \(E\)  -  elasticity
  • \( MATL \)  -  material
  • \( ML \)  -  material list

 

Materials Glossary

A

  • Annealing  -  A method of heat treating used to relieve stress and increase softening.

B

C

  • Capacitance  -  The ability to hold an electric charge.
  • Capacitor  -  Behaves as a charge storage device.  Holds an electric charge when voltage is applied across it and gives up the stored charge when required.
  • Cleanroom  -  A room/facility in which the air supply, air distribution, filtration of air supply, materials of construction, and operating procedures are regulated to control airborne particle concentrations to meet approperate cleanliness levels.
  • Composite material  -  A combination of two materials with different chemical and physical properties.
  • Conductor  -  A material through which heat passes and allows the free flow of electric charge.

D

E

  • Elasticity  -  Measures the stiffness of an elastic material.  Elasticity can deformed body and return to its original shape when the forces exerted are removed.
  • Elastic limits  -  Maximum stress that can be applied to a metal without causing plastic deformation that will remain after the load is relaxed to zero.
  • Electrode  -  An electrical conductor used to contact a nonmetallic part of a circuit.
  • Electron  -  A subatomic particle found in all atoms, electrons carry electricity by flowing from one atom to the next in a conductive material.

F

G

H

  • Hardness  -  The property of a material that enables it to resist plastic deformation, usually by penetration.  However, the term hardness may also refer to resistance to bending, scratching, abrasion or cutting.

I

J

K

  • Kerf loss  -  The amount of material loss during a cutting process.

L

M

  • Mask  -  A patterned layer of material used to prevent the etching of the material directly beneath it.

N

O

P

Q

R

S

  • Shear stress  - Tends to deform the material by breaking rather than stretching without changing the volume by restraining the object.
  • Stiffness  -  The resistance of the elastic deformation of an object that applies to both compression and tension.

T

  • Tensile strength  -  The maximum stress a material can resist before it starts to elongate.
  • Thermal conductivity  -  The ability to transfer heat within a material without any motion of the material.
  • Thermal expansion coefficient  -  The percentage change in the length of the material per degree of temperature change, heated solid or liquid.

U

V

W

X

Y

  • Yield strength  -  The minimum stress that leads to permanent deformation of the material.

Z

 

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